Verbs Associated with Cognitive Demands 
of Different Teaching/Learning Objectives
When we plan project-based and task-based learning, especially in computer and CALL lab settings, we need to learn to think about student learning in terms of what they can do.  We should try to get away from saying "in this class a student will learn about computers" or "in this class a student will learn to communicate in spoken English."  It's hard work, but we need to try to have our plans made in what we expect students to do. 

Each higher level of the taxonomy assumes the ablity to work at the levels underneath it.  For example, a student who can "discuss" using the WEB for research must also have already memorized some terminology and concepts and developed the ability to recall that knowledge and to reproduce it in her/his own words in the discussion.

This chart is based on Bloom's Taxonomy of the cognitive demands of different activities and was used in a workshop on distance learning presented in August, 1999, by Rita-Marie Conrad and Kathy Ingram (Florida State University).  To see yet another approach to analyzing tests that evaluate higher order thinking, click here.

 1.  Knowledge
(Recall information)
 2. Comprehension
(Interpret information in one's own words)
 3. Application 
(Apply knowledge or generalize it to a new situation)
Arrange
Define
Duplicate
Label
List
Match
Memorize
Name
Order
Recognize
Recall
Relate
Repeat
Reproduce
Classify
Describe
Discuss
Explain
Express
Identify
Indicate
Locate
Recognize
Report
Restate
Review
Select
Sort
Tell
Translate
Apply
Choose
Demonstrate
Dramatize
Employ
Illustrate
Interpret
Operate
Practice
Prepare
Schedule
Sketch
Solve
Use

 
 4. Analysis
(Break down knowledge into parts & whole relationship)
5. Synthesis 
(Bring together parts to form a whole)
6. Evaluation 
(Make judgements on basis of given criteria)
Analyze
Appraise
Calculate
Categorize
Compare
Contrast
Criticize
Diagram
Differentiate
Discriminate
Distinguish
Examine
Experiment
Inventory
Question
Test
Arrange
Assemble
Collect
Compose
Construct
Create
Design
Formulate
Manage
Organize
Plan
Prepare
Propose
Set up
Synthesize
Write
Appraise
Argue
Assess
Attack
Compare
Estimate
Evaluate
Judge
Predict
Rate
Score
Select
Support
Value