Coordination & Subordination Analysis

Try analyzing these:  What is being coordinated?  What kinds of subordinate clauses are used? How do coordination and subordination interact? 


 
 
 
#1 The sociological perspective opens a window onto unfamiliar worlds and offers a fresh look at familiar worlds.
Coordination the predicate is coordinated--two predicates are joined with and
Subordination no subordination in this simple sentence
   

 
 
 
#2 Sociologists consider people's jobs, income, education, gender, age, and race.
Coordination the direct oject is made up of a series of coordinated noun phrases joined with and
Subordination no subordination in this simple sentence
   

 
 
 
#3 Growing up male or female influences not only our aspirations, but also how we feel about ourselves and how we relate to others in dating and marriage and at work.
Coordination the sentence involves coordination with but and with and

but combines two units into a combined direct object--the first unit is a noun phrase (our aspirations) and the 2nd unit is a wh-clause (how we feel about ourselves and how we relate to others....)

and is used to combine two wh-clauses

and is also used to combine a series of prepositional phrases that are adverbials in a wh-clause

Subordination wh-clauses in the direct object

coordination is used to combine two subordinate clauses in this complex sentence

   

 
 
 
#4 We often think and talk about people's behaviors.
Coordination and is used to combine two verbs...think about people's behaviors and talk about people's behaviors...with ellipsis in the first verb to avoid repetition of about people's behaviors
Subordination no subordination in this simple sentence
   

 
 
 
#5 Today instantaneous communications connect us with remote areas of the globe, and a vast economic system connects us not only with Canada and Mexico but also Belgium, Taiwan, and Indonesia.
Coordination two independent clauses are combined with and in this compound sentence

the 2nd independent clause uses not only with....and...but also...and.  A series of countries is provided using two coordination devices.  Notice that not only with....but also sets up a contrasting pair.  Then and is used within that set to give multiple countries in parallel series

Subordination no subordination in this long, complicated compound sentence
   

 
 
 
#6 Political scientists are especially interested in how people attain ruling positions in their society, how they maintain those positions, and the consequences of their activites for those who are governed.
Coordination and is used to coordinate a series of three wh-clauses that are the objects of the preposition in
Subordination subordination with a series of 3 wh-clauses as the object of the preposition in this complex sentence

be interested in is treated as a prepositional verb unit in the Longman Grammar and in the Comprehensive Grammar

coordination is used to make a set out of a series of 3 subordinate clauses

   

 
 
 
#7 Economists want to know what goods are being produced at what rate and at what cost, and how those goods are distributed.
Coordination and is used at two levels: 1st to combine two wh-clauses and then within the 1st of those clauses to combine prepostional phrases (at... and at...)
Subordination the direct object is a long infinitive clause--with the infinitive having a coordinated object of its own: to know what goods are being produced at what rate and at what cost, and how those goods are distributed

subordination also occurs with wh-clauses as the object of the infinitive to know

coordination interacts with subordination--making sets of subordinated items

   

 
 
 
#8 The chief concern of anthropologists is to understand culture.
Coordination no coordination
Subordination subordination is with the infinitive clause

This analysis is based on the definition of a clause as having a verb + other stuff.  You will find that many traditional grammars and many ESL/EFL texts/teachers consider the infinitive a phrase--and want to call this sentence a simple sentence.  Really, it's not that important--in one setting one type of analysis is used while in the other setting another analysis is used.   

   

 
 
 
#9 Sociologists also study how people govern one another.
Coordination no coordination
Subordination subordination with a wh-clause as the direct object of the verb
   

 
 
 
#10 By this, Weber meant that a sociologist's values should not affect his or her social research.
Coordination coordination with or--for the coordinated determiner his or her
Subordination subordination is a noun clause as the direct object of the sentence: that a sociologist's values should not affect his or her social research

As in other examples, coordination works within the subordinate clause

   

 
 
 
#11 A classic example of an early woman sociologist is Harriet Martineau (1802-1876), who was born into a wealthy English family.
Coordination no coordination
Subordination subordination is with a non-restrictive relative clause--it gives additonal information about Harriet Martineau but does not identify her--proper nouns are already identified
   

 
 
 
#12 Transplanted to U.S. soil in the late nineteenth century, sociology first took root at the University of Chicago and at Atlanta University, then an all-black school.
Coordination coordination: and combines two prepositional phrases
Subordination subordination is subtle here with reduced subordinate clauses that do not use subordinating conjunctions

Transplanted to U.S. soil in the late nineteenth century: this clause is called a participle clause--and is considered an adverbial that gives the time or condition and can be analyzed as meaning something like "while sociology was transplanted to U.S. soil in the late nineteenth century" or "when sociology was transplanted to U.S. soil in the late nineteenth century"

then an all-black school: this clause can be analyzed as a reduced non-restrictive relative clause: "which was then an all-black school."

take root at somewhere---that's a prepositional verb, right?!
 

   
 
#13 At first sociology in the United States was dominated by the department at the University of Chicago, founded by Albion Small (1854-1926), who also founded the American Journal of Sociology, and was its editor from 1895 to 1925.
Coordination and is used to combine to clauses with information about Albion Small
Subordination subordination involves a series of non-restrictive relative clauses that also involve some clause reduction

founded by Albion Small ....: This long non-restrictive clause gives information about the sociology department at the University of Chicago.  The full version would be "which was founded by...."

The sentence continues with information about Albion Small--a coordinated set of non-restrictive relative clauses with the 1st one in full form and the 2nd one reduced.

This sentence would be hard for many students to read--I would expect that some of them would think that Albion Small founded the University of Chicago.  Generally readers expect a relative clause to modify the nearest noun phrase.  

   

 
 
 
#14 While the above changes in marriage expectations were taking place, another significant social change was under way.
Coordination no coordination
Subordination subordination is with an introductory adverbial clause