Schumann’s Acculturation Model
A. What is acculturation?
“By acculturation I mean the social and psychological integration of the learner with the target language group” (Schumann, 1978, p. 29). It consists of the following social and affective factors.
Social dominance patterns
Social Integration patterns (assimilation, preservation, adaptation)
Factors Enclosure, Cohesiveness, Size,
Congruence, Attitude, Intended length of residence
Affective Cultural Shock
B. Relationship between acculturation and
“I also propose that any learner can be placed on a continuum that ranges from social and psychological distance to social and psychological proximity with speakers of the TL, and that the learner will acquire the second language only to the degree that he acculturates” (Schumann, 1978, p. 29).
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C. Research Evidence
The study of acquisition of German by 48 immigrant works showed that their syntactic development is closely correlated with social and affective factors, as shown below:
a. leisure contact with Germans (.64)
b. age upon entering
c. contact with Germans at work (.53)
d. length of education (.33)
e. sex (.12)
f. mother tongue (.13)
2. The Alberto Data
The study of six immigrants in the USA showed that the
one who acquired the least amount of English was the one who was the most
socially and psychologically distant from the TL group. This learner was a
33-year-old Costa Rican named Alberto. Several tests given to
D. The Pidginization Hypothesis
1. What is a pidgin, a Creole, pidginization, or decreolization?
3. The level of acculturation will determine the level of decreolization.
E. Limitations: e.g., explain naturalistic