Chapter 3 - Minerals and Rocks

Answers to Review Questions and Critical Thinking Questions

Review Questions

1. A natural organic solid with characteristic chemical composition and crystalline structure.
2. An aggregate of one or more minerals
3. Igneous rocks form from crystallization of molten rock , sedimentary rocks form from the deposition and compaction of detrital and chemical sediment, and metamorphic rocks form through the alteration of preexisting rocks by addition of heat, pressure, and/or chemically active fluids.
4. The three main rock types and the processes that change one to the other
5. A batholith is a large, regional-scale mass of intrusive igneous rock, composed of multiple plutons.
6. The breakdown of minerals by chemical and physical processes at or near the Earth’s surface
7. Composition, texture, and location
8. Detrital sedimentary rocks are composed of broken parts of preexisting rocks, while chemical sedimentary rocks form from chemical or biochemical precipitation
9. Slippage of weak, foliated metamorphic rock, disintegration of sedimentary rocks, and water leakage along a fault zone
10. Fractures (joints and faults), folds, and unconformities
11. Alteration of chemical composition of the magma by fractional crystallization and melting or partial melting of surrounding rock.
12. Clay as a textural term refers to particles <.004 mm. As a mineralogic term, clay refers to one of several minerals in the clay group.
13. A rock is younger than any other rock it cuts
14. Sedimentary layers are nearly horizontal when deposited; oldest layers of sedimentary rock are on the bottom and youngest are on the top in a sequence of layers that has not been overturned.
15. Initial, slow crystallization of mineral grains while magma is deep in the Earth, followed by rapid crystallization at Earth’s surface.
16. Deposition, tilting, erosion of tilted layers, deposition of new sedimentary rocks on truncated layers.
17. Composition, texture, and location.

Critical Thinking Question
1. Steps should focus on determining the types of asbestos present and its condition, and the development of a means of communication with parents regarding the types, location, and condition of asbestos in the buildings, as well as the actions being taken to safeguard the children.