ADDITION TO WEMSK5: OUTLINES OF LITERARY RHETORIC

[These outlines are an amalgam of Aristotle, Quintilian, and minor
rhetoricians (C. Halm, Rhetores latini minores Leipzig, 1863).  It
owes much to what is destined to become the standard work in the
field: H. Lausberg, Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, 2 vols.,
Munich, 1960.  See also E. Faral, Les arts poetiques du XIIe et du
XIIIe siecle, Paris, 1924.]

I. Rhetoric (he hretorike [tekhne] [ars] oratoria; rhetorica) is
the art of speaking in order to persuade (ars dicendi accommodata
ad persuadendum), and is divided into five parts:

a) inventio (heuresis) = method of finding and collecting materials
and arguments.
b) dispositio (taxis) = method of putting together the materials
'found',
c) elocutio (leksis) linguistic formulation of arguments based on
the dispositio,
d) memoria (mneme) = method of learning the elocutio.
e) pronuntiatio (hupokrisis) = method of declamation.

II. The three types of speech (elocutio):

a) genus iudicale (genos dikanikon): judicial and court speech.
b) genus deliberativum (genos sumbouleutikon): political speech,
persuasive speech and logic.
c) genus demonstrativum (genos epideiktikon): epideictic or
artistic speech, literature.

III.The three types of good style in elocutio (especially of the
genus demonstrativum)

a) perspicuitas dicendi (sapheneia): intellectual characteristics
in the choice of words and order of words (proprietas verborum)
b) ornatus (kataskeue, kosmos): aesthetic decoration of the speech
c) aptum dicendi genus (prepos): the tone of the piece, and its
propriety with regard to the material.  Of this there are three
types:

I)genus tenue (genos iskhnon).  Simple style without any ornament,
suitable for intellectual discussion and instruction,
2)genus medium or floridum (genos meson, antheron).  A more ornate
style, poetic medium; the poetic canon.  Can be used in persuasion
and instruction and conciliation.
3)genus grande (genos hadron).  Uses all means of decoration;
useful only for the most sublime subjects.  Must not be overused
(fear of redundancy and entropy, Aristotle), emotional.  In
medieval rhetoric, compare the trobar clus of the Provencal poets
and the kenningar of the Icelanders (see Snorri's Skaldskaparmal).

IV.Figures.  The genus grande or grand style is reached by means of
tropes or figures (figurae, skhemata), artistic novelties, "arte
aliqua novata forma dicendi). They are divided into verbal figures
and thought figures (figurae verborum, skhemata lekseos; figurae
mentis vel sententiarum; skhemata dianoias).

a) Tropes.  Tropes are word figures, and properly belong in the
realm of lexicology.  They are:

 1.  Metaphor (translatio, metaphora).
 2.  metonomy (denominatio, metonumia)
 3.  synecdoche (pars pro toto),   / These 3 are sometimes treated
 4.  Antonomasia (pronominatio)   /   as one.
 5.  Periphrasis (circumlocutio)   \
 6.  Emphasis.
 7.  Hyperbole (superlatio).
 8.  Litotes (exadversio, antenantiosis, litotes) [7,8,9 are often
taken as      one]
 9. Irony

b)   Grammatical figures:

I. Barbarism and metaplasm (barbarismus et metaplasmus).
a. addition (adjectio)
   1. pro(s)thesis.
   2. epenthesis
   3. paragoge

b. subtraction (detractio)
   1. aphaeresis.
   2. syncope
   3. apocope

c. mutation (inmutatio)
   1. ectasis.
   2. systole
   3. diaeresis.
   4. synizesis
   5. synaloephe [5 and 6 involve usually two words, and could
      be put under sentence figures]
   6. tmesis

d. metathesis.

2. Solecism.
a. figures of case.
b. number
c. mood
d. tense, etc.