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Peer Reviewed

Brosnan, SF (2013). Justice and fairness related behaviors in non-human primates. PNAS 110: 10416-10423.

Hopper, LM, Lambeth, SP, Schapiro, SJ & Brosnan, SF (2013). When given the opportunity, chimpanzees maximize personal gain rather than “level the playing field”. PeerJ.

Freeman, H., Sullivan, J., Hopper, L., Talbot, C., Holmes, A., Schultz-Darken, N., Williams, LE, Brosnan, SF.(2013) Different responses to reward comparisons by three primate species. PLOS ONE. 8(10): e76297.

Drayton, LA, Brosnan, SF, Carrigan, J, Stoinski, TS (2013). Endowment effects in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Journal of Comparative Psychology.

Brosnan, SF, Beran, MJ, Parrish, AE, Price, SA, Wilson, BJ (2013). Comparative approaches to studying strategy: Towards an evolutionary account of primate decision making. Evolutionary Psychology 11(3): 606-627.

Freeman, H. Brosnan, SF, Hopper, LM, Lambeth, SP, Schapiro, SJ & Gosling, SD (2013). Personality dimensions in chimpanzees: A factor analysis of data collecting using top-down and bottom-up approaches. American Journal of Primatology. Doi:10.1002/ajp.22168 *Featured paper of the month in the American Journal of Primatology

Hopper, LM, Lambeth, SP, Schapiro, SJ, Bernacky, BJ & Brosnan, SF (2013). The ontogeny of social comparisons by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Primatology 2(109). doi:10.4172/2167-6801.1000109.

Silk, JB, Brosnan, SF, Henrich, J, Lambeth, SP & Schaprio, SJ (2013) Chimpanzees share food for many reasons: the roles of kinship, reciprocity, relationship quality, and solicitation pressure on food transfers. Animal Behavior 85, 941-947.

Morton, FB, Lee, PC, Buchanan-Smith, HM, Theirry, B, de Waal, FBM, Widness, J, Essler, J, Paukner, A, Brosnan, SF, Weiss, A (2013). Personality and behavior in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): Understanding social affiliation and primate personality evolution. Journal of Comparative Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0031723.

DeAngelo, G & Brosnan, SF (2013) The importance of risk tolerance and knowledge when considering the evolution of inequity responses across the primates. Journal of Economic and Behavioral Organization. Doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.2012.12.014

Proctor, D & Brosnan, SF (2013) Visual processing speed in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 26: 166-175.

Hopper, L.M., Holmes, A.N., Williams, L.E., & Brosnan, S.F. 2013. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning. PeerJ 1:e13, DOI 10.7717/peerj.13

Proctor, D., Williamson, R. A., de Waal, F. B., & Brosnan, S. F. (2013). Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Accompanying commentary by Manfred Milinski

Flemming, T. M., Jones, O. D., Mayo, L., Stoinski, T., & Brosnan, S. F. (2012). The Endowment Effect in Orangutans. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 25, 285-298.

Salwiczek, L. H., Prétôt, L., Demarta, L., Proctor, D., Essler, J., Pinto, A. I., Wismer, S., Stoinski, T., Brosnan, S.F., & Bshary, R. (2012). Adult Cleaner Wrasse Outperform Capuchin Monkeys, Chimpanzees and Orang-utans in a Complex Foraging Task Derived from Cleaner–Client Reef Fish Cooperation. PloS one, 7(11), e49068.

Evans, T. A., Perdue, B. M., Parrish, A. E., Menzel, E. C., Brosnan, S. F., & Beran, M. J. (2012). How Is Chimpanzee Self-Control Influenced by Social Setting?. Scientifica, 2012.

Brosnan, S. F., & de Waal, F. B. (2012). Fairness in Animals: Where to from Here?. Social Justice Research, 1-16.

Raihani, N. J., McAuliffe, K., Brosnan, S. F., & Bshary, R. (2012). Are cleaner fish, Labroides dimidiatus, inequity averse?. Animal Behaviour.

Brosnan, S. F., Wilson, B., & Beran, M. J. (2012). Old World monkeys are more similar to humans than New World monkeys when playing a coordination game. Proc. R. Soc. B, 279, 1522-1530.

House, B. R., Henrich, J., Brosnan, S. F., & Silk, J. B. (2012). The ontogeny of human prosociality: Behavioral experiments with children aged 3 to 8. Evolution and Human Behavior xxx-xxx.

Brosnan, S. F., Jones, O. D., Gardner, M., Lambeth, S. P., & Schapiro, S. J. (2012). Evolution and the expression of biases: Situational value changes the endowment effect in chimpanzees. Evolution and Human Behavior xxx-xxx.

Price, S. A., & Brosnan, S. F. (2012). To Each According to his Need? Variability in the Responses to Inequity in Non-Human Primates. Soc Just Res (2012) 25:140-169.

Brosnan, S. F. (2012). Introduction to "justice in animals." Soc Just Res (2012) 25:109-121.

Hopper, L. M. & Brosnan, S. F. (2012). Primate Cognition. Nature Education Knowledge 3(6):1.

Brosnan, S. F., Flemming, T., Talbot, C. F., Mayo, L., & Stoinski, T. (2011). Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) Do Not Form Expectations Based on Their Partner's Outcomes. Folia Primatologica, 82(1), 56-70. doi: 10.1159/000328142

Brosnan, S. F. (2011). A hypothesis of coevolution between cooperation and responses to inequity. [Hypothesis & Theory]. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 5. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2011.00043

Brosnan, S. F. (2011). Property in nonhuman primates. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2011(132), 9-22. doi: 10.1002/cd.293

Talbot, C. F., Freeman, H. D., Williams, L. E., & Brosnan, S. F. (2011). Squirrel monkeys' response to inequitable outcomes indicates a behavioural convergence within the primates. Biology Letters. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0211

Proctor, D. P., Lambeth, S. P., Schapiro, S. J., & Brosnan, S. F. (2011). Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status. American Journal of Primatology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/ajp.20964

Brosnan, S. F. (2011). An evolutionary perspective on morality. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 77(1), 23-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.2010.04.008

Brosnan S.F., Parrish A., Beran M.J., Flemming T., Heimbauer L., Talbot C.F., Lambeth S.P., Schapiro S.J., and Wilson B.J. (2011). Comparative economics: Responses to the Assurance game in monkeys, apes, and humans using equivalent procedures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 108, 3442-3447. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1016269108)

Hopper, L. M., Schapiro, S. J., Lambeth, S. P. & Brosnan, S. F. (2011). Chimpanzees' socially maintained food preferences indicate both conservatism and conformity. Animal Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.03.002

Brosnan, S. F., Salwiczek, L., & Bshary, R. (2010). The interplay of cognition and cooperation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1553), 2699-2710. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0154

Brosnan, S. F. and Bshary, R., 2010. Cooperation and deception: from evolution to mechanisms. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365:2593-2598

Brosnan, S. F., Talbot, C., Ahlgren, M., Lambeth, S. P., Schapiro, S.J. (2010). Mechanisms underlying responses to inequitable outcomes in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Animal Behaviour 79, 1229-1327. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.02.019

Brosnan, S. F., Houser, D., Leimgruber, K., Xiao, E., Chen, T., de Waal, F. B. M. (2010). Competing demands of prosociality and equity in monkeys. Evolution and Human Behavior 31: 279-288.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and Newton-Fischer, Nicholas E. (2009). A melding of the minds: When primatology meets personality and social psychology. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. doi:10.1177/1088868309335127.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2009). Cebus apella tolerate intermittent unreliability in human experimenters. International Journal of Primatology DOI 10.1007/s10764-009-9366-x.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and Beran, Michael J. (2009). Trading behavior between conspecifics in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 123: 181-194.

Brosnan, Sarah F., Silk, Joan B., Henrich, Joseph, Mareno, Mary C., Lambeth, Susan P. and Schapiro, Steven J. (2009). Chimpanzees (Pan trogledytes) do not develop contingent reciprocity in an experimental task. Animal Cognition DOI 10.1007/s10071-009-0218-z.

Owen, Jones D. and Brosnan, Sarah F. (2008). Law, biology, and property: A new theory of the endowment effect. William and Mary Law Review 49: 1935-1990.

Brosnan, Sarah F., Grady, Mark, Lambeth, Susan P., Schapiro, Steven J., and Beran, Michael J. (2008Chimpanzee AutarkyPLoS ONE 3(1): e1518. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001518.

Vonk, J., Brosnan, S.F., Silk, J.B., Henrich, J., Schapiro, S., Richardson, A., Lambeth, S.P., Povinelli, D.J.. (2008).  Chimpanzees do not take advantage of very low cost opportunities to deliver food to unrelated group membersAnimal Behavior 75: 1757-1770.

Brosnan, Sarah. F., Jones, Owen D., Lambeth, Susan P., Mareno, Mary Catherine, Richardson, Amanda S., and Schapiro, Steven J. (2007Endowment effects in chimpanzeesCurrent Biology. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2007.08.059.

van Wolkenten, Megan, Brosnan, Sarah F., and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2007) Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 18854-18859.

Brosnan, Sarah F. (2006) Nonhuman species' reactions to inequity and their implications for fairness. Journal
of Socia
l Justice 19: 153-185.

Brosnan, Sarah F., Freeman, Cassie, and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2006) Capuchin monkey's (Cebus apella) reactions to inequity in an unrestricted barpull situation. American Journal of Primatology 68: 713-724.

Silk, Joan B. Brosnan, Sarah F., Vonk, Jennifer, Henrich, Joseph, Povinelli, Daniel, Lambeth, Susan, Richardson, Amanda, Mascaro, Jenny, and Shapiro, Steve (2005) Chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members.  Nature 437: 1357-1359.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2005) A simple response to barter in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates 46: 173-182.

Brosnan, Sarah F., Schiff, Hillary C., and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2005) Tolerance for inequity may increase with social closeness in chimpanzees.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 1560: 253-258.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2004) A concept of value during experimental exchange in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Folia Primatologica 75: 317-330.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2004) Socially learned preferences for differentially rewarded tokens in the brown capuchin monkey, Cebus apellaJournal of Comparative Psychology 119: 133-139.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2004) Reply to "Inequity aversion in capuchins". Nature 428: 140.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2003) Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature 425: 297-299.

Brosnan, Sarah F., Dugatkin, Lee A., and Early, Ryan L. (2003) Observational learning and predator inspection in guppies, (Poecilia reticulata). Ethology 109: 823-834.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2003) Regulation of vocalizations by chimpanzees finding food in the presence or absence of an audience. Evolution of Communication 4 (2): 211-224.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2002). Variations on tit-for-tat: Proximate mechanisms of cooperation and reciprocity. Human Nature 13 (1): 129-152.


Parrish A.E. and Brosnan S.F. (2012) Primate Cognition. In: V.S. Ramachandran (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 3, pp. 174-180. Academic Press.

Proctor, D., & Brosnan, S. F. (2011). Political primates: What other primates can tell us about the evolutionary roots of our own political behavior. In P. Hatemi & M. McDermott (Eds.), Man is by Nature a Political Animal: Evolution, Biology and Politics (pp. 47-71). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Brosnan, Sarah F.  (2008) Fairness and other-regarding preferences in non-human primates  (ed. Paul Zak)
Preprint available on SSRN at

de Waal, Frans B. M. and Brosnan, Sarah F.  (2006)  Simple and complex social reciprocity in monkeys and apes.  In Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution  (ed. Peter Kappeler & Carel van Schaik).  Springer Press.

Brosnan, Sarah F. (2004A sense of fairness in monkeys.  In The Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (ed. Marc Bekoff).  Greenwood Press.

Brosnan, Sarah F. (in press )  The evolution of inequity.  (ed. Daniel Houser and Kevin McCabe)  in Advances in Health Economics series.  Elsevier.

Brosnan, Sarah F. (in press).  Inequity responses in nonhumn primates (ed. Paul Glimcher, Ernst Fehr, Colin Camerer, Russ Poldrack) in Neuroeconomics.  Elsevier.

Brosnan, Sarah F. (in press )  Prosocial behavior in chimpanzees.  (ed. Elizabeth Lonsdorf, Steven Ross, and Tetsuro Matsuzawa) in The Chimpanzee Mind.  University of Chicago Press.

Reviews and Commentaries

Brosnan, Sarah F. (2010). Behavioral development: Timing is everything. Current Biology. 20:3 R98-R99 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.12.009

Brosnan, Sarah F.  (2008)  The ultimatum game and nonhuman primatesScientific American “Mind Matters” blog.

Jones, Owen D. and Brosnan, Sarah F. (2008)  Law, Biology and Property:  A new theory of the endowment effect.  William & Mary Law Review, Vol. 49. Available at SSRN:

Brosnan, Sarah F. (2008A different approach to human evolution - a review of "Baboon Metaphysics: The evolution of a social mind" by Dorothy Cheney & Robert SeyfarthEvolution and Human Behavior Vol. 29, Issue 3, 221-222.

Brosnan, Sarah F. (2007Our Social Roots.  Review of “Macachiavellian Intelligence” by Dario Maestripieri, “Gorilla Societies” by Andrew Harcourt and Kelly Stewart, and “Chimpanzee Societies, 25th Anniversary Edition” by Frans de WaalNature 425: 1160-1161.

Brosnan, Sarah F. (2006)  At a crossroads of disciplines.  Journal of Social Justice. 19: 218-227.

Silk, Joan B., Brosnan, Sarah F., Vonk, Jennifer, Henrich, Joseph, Povinelli, Daniel, Richardson, Lambeth, Susan, Amanda, Mascaro, Jenny, and Shapiro, Steve.  (2006)   Animal Behavior: Chimpanzee choice and prosociality (Reply). Nature 440: E6.

Brosnan, Sarah F.  (2006) An exploration of culture: Review of “The cultured Chimpanzee:  Reflections on cultural primatology” by William McGrew.  American Journal of Primatology 68: 425-427.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M.  (2006)  Partial support for a non-replication: Commentary on Roma, Silberberg, Ruggiero, and Suomi (2006).  Journal of Comparative Psychology 120(1): 74-75.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, F.B.M. (2005) A cross-species perspective on the selfishness axiom: Commentary on Henrich et. al.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28: 818.

Brosnan, Sarah F. and de Waal, Frans B. M. (2004) Reply to "Inequity aversion in capuchins". Nature 428: 140.

de Waal, Frans B. M. and Brosnan, Sarah F.  (2003)  Review of “What it Means to be 98% Chimpanzee” by Jonathan Marks and “In Defense of the Soul: What it means to be human” by Ric Machuga.  Science and Spirit Jan/Feb: 41.