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Publications

Books

Jarvis, S., & Crossley, S. A. (2012). Approaching language transfer through text classification: Explorations in the detection-based approach. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Journal Articles

Crossley, S. A., Clevinger, A., & Kim, Y. (in press). The role of lexical properties and cohesive devices in text integration and their effect on human ratings of speaking proficiency. Language Assessment Quarterly. 

Crossley, S. A., Cobb, T., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Comparing count-based and band-based indices of word frequency: Implications for active vocabulary research and pedagogical applications. System.

Crossley, S. A., Sung, H., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). What’s so simple about simplified texts? A computational and psycholinguistic investigation of text comprehension and text processing. Reading in a Foreign Language.

Roscoe, R. D., Varner, L. K., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Developing pedagogically-guided algorithms for intelligent writing feedback. International Journal of Learning Technology.

Roscoe, R., Varner, L., Weston, J., Crossley, S., & McNamara, D. (in press). The Writing Pal Intelligent Tutoring System: Usability testing and development. Computers and Composition.

Crossley, S. A. (2013). Advancing research in second language writing through computational tools and machine learning techniques: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 46 (2), 256-271.

Crossley, S. A. (2013). Automatic processing of hypernymic relations in first language speakers and advanced second language learners: A semantic priming approach. Mental Lexicon, 8 (1), 96-116.

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Applications of Text Analysis Tools for Spoken Response Grading. Language Learning & Technology, 17 (2), 171-192.

Crossley, S. A., Subtirelu, N., Salsbury, T. (2013). Frequency effects or context effects in second language word learning: What predicts early lexical production? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35 (4), 727-755.

Guo, L. Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Predicting human judgments of essay quality in both integrated and independent second language writing samples: A comparison study. Writing Assessment, 18 (3), 218-238.

McNamara, D. S., Crossley, S. A., & Roscoe, R. (2013). Natural Language Processing in an Intelligent Writing Strategy Tutoring System. Behavior Research Methods, 45 (2), 499-515.

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Predicting second language writing proficiency: The role of cohesion, readability, and lexical difficulty. Journal of Research in Reading, 35 (2), 115-135

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Predicting the proficiency level of language learners using lexical indices. Language Testing, 29 (2), 240-260.

Crossley, S. A., Allen, D., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Text simplification and comprehensible input: A case for an intuitive approach. Language Teaching Research, 16 (1), 89-108

Bell, N. D., Crossley, S. A., & Hempelmann, C. F. (2011). Wordplay in church marquees.Humor, 24 (2), 167-185. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Allen, D., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Text readability and intuitive simplification: A comparison of readability formulas. Reading in a Foreign Language, 23 (1), 84-102. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Dempsey, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Classifying paragraph types using linguistic features: Is paragraph positioning important? Journal of Writing Research, 3 (2), 119-143. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Shared features of L2 writing: Intergroup homogeneity and text classification. Journal of Second Language Writing, 20 (4), 271-285.

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Understanding expert ratings of essay quality: Coh-Metrix analyses of first and second language writing. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, 21 (2/3), 170-191. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Weston, J., McLain Sullivan, S. T., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). The development of writing proficiency as a function of grade level: A linguistic analysis. Written Communication, 28 (3), 282-311. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & Salsbury, T. (2011). The development of lexical bundle accuracy and production in English second language speakers. IRAL: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 49 (1), 1-26. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., McNamara, D. S., & Jarvis, S. (2011). Predicting lexical proficiency in language learners using computational indices. Language Testing, 28 (4), 561-580. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., McNamara, D. S., & Jarvis, S. (2011). What is lexical proficiency? Some answers from computational models of speech data. TESOL Quarterly, 45 (1), 182-193. [PDF]

Salsbury, T., Crossley, S. A, & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Psycholinguistic word information in second language oral discourse. Second Language Research, 26 (2). DOI: 10.1177/0267658310395851. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2010). The role of lexical cohesive devices in triggering negotiations for meaning. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 18 (1), 55-80[PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & Salsbury, T. (2010). Using lexical indices to predict produced and not produced words in second language learners. The Mental Lexicon, 5 (1), 115-147. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2010). The development of polysemy and frequency use in English second language speakers. Language Learning, 60 (3), 573-605. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2010). The development of semantic relations in second language speakers: A case for Latent Semantic Analysis. Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7, 55-74. [PDF]

McNamara, D. S., Crossley, S. A., & McCarthy, P. M. (2010). The linguistic features of quality writing. Written Communication, 27 (1), 57-86. [PDF]

 Crossley, S. A., Louwerse, M., & McNamara, D. S. (2009). Identifying linguistic cues that distinguish text types: A comparison of first and second language speakers. Language Research, 42 (2), 361-381. [PDF]

 Crossley, S. A. & McNamara, D. S. (2009). Computationally assessing lexical differences in second language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17 (2), 119-135. [PDF]

 Crossley, S. A, Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (2009). Measuring second language lexical growth using hypernymic relationships. Language Learning. 59 (2), 307-334. [PDF]

 Crossley, S. A. (2008). The effects of genre analysis pedagogy: A corpus-based and situational analysis. Foreign Languages for Specific Purposes, 7, 20-35. [PDF]

 Crossley, S. A., Greenfield, J., & McNamara, D. S. (2008). Assessing text readability using cognitively based indices. TESOL Quarterly, 42 (3), 475-493. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. & McNamara, D. S. (2008). Assessing Second Language Reading Texts at the Intermediate Level: An approximate replication of Crossley, Louwerse, McCarthy, and McNamara (2007). Language Teaching, 41 (3), 409-229. [PDF]

 Louwerse, M. M., Crossley, S. A., & Jeuniaux, P. (2008). What if? Conditionals in educational registers. Linguistics and Education, 19, 56-69. [PDF]

 Crossley, S. A. (2007). A chronotopic approach to genre analysis: An exploratory study. English for Specific Purposes, 26 (1) 4-24. [PDF]

 Crossley, S. A. & Louwerse, M. M. (2007). Multi-dimensional register classification using bi-grams. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 12, (4), 453-478. [PDF]

 Crossley, S. A., Louwerse, M. M., McCarthy, P. M. & McNamara, D. S. (2007). A linguistic analysis of simplified and authentic texts. The Modern Language Journal, 91, (2) 15-30. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. (2005). Metaphorical considerations in hip-hop music: Toward a better understanding of the hip-hop generation. African American Review, 9, (4) 501-512. [PDF]

Refereed Book Chapters

Crossley, S. A., Varner, L., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). A multidimensional analysis of essay writing: What linguistic features tell us about situational parameters and the effects of language functions on judgments of quality. In T. B. Sardinha and M. V. Pinto (Eds.), Multi-Dimensional Analysis, 25 years on: A Tribute to Douglas Biber. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. 

Crossley, S. A., Feng, S., Cai, Z., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Computer simulations of MRC Psycholinguistics Database word properties: Concreteness, familiarity, and imagability. In M. Daller and S. Jarvis (Eds.), Vocabulary Knowledge: Human Ratings and Automated Measures. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Validating lexical measures using human scores of lexical proficiency. In M. Daller and S. Jarvis (Eds.), Vocabulary Knowledge: Human Ratings and Automated Measures. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Crossley, S. A. (2012). Detection-based approaches: Methods, theories, and applications.  In S. Jarvis and S. A. Crossley (Eds.), Approaching Language Transfer through Text Classification: Explorations in the Detection-Based Approach. (pp. 178-189). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). A computational analysis of interlanguage talk: New approaches and applications. In P. M. McCarthy and C. Boonthum (Eds.), Applied natural language processing and content analysis: Identification, investigation, and resolution. (pp. 425-437). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Detecting the first language of second language writers using automated indices of cohesion, lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and conceptual knowledge. In S. Jarvis and S. A. Crossley (Eds.), Approaching Language Transfer through Text Classification: Explorations in the Detection-Based Approach. (pp. 106-126). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Jarvis, S., Bestgen, Y., Crossley, S. A., Granger, S., Paquot, M. Thewissen, J. (2012). The comparative and combined contributions of N-grams, Coh-Metrix indices, and error types in the L1 classification of learner texts. In S. Jarvis and S. A. Crossley (Eds.), Approaching language transfer through text classification: Approaching Language Transfer through Text Classification: Explorations in the Detection-Based Approach. (pp. 154-157). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

McNamara, D. S., Raine, R., Roscoe, R., Crossley, S., Jackson, T., Dai, J., Cai, Z., Renner, A., Brandon, R., Weston, J., Dempsey, K., Lam, D., Kim, L., Rus, V., Floyd, R., McCarthy, P. M., Graesser, A. C. (2012). The Writing-Pal: Natural language algorithms to support intelligent tutoring on writing strategies. In P. M. McCarthy and C. Boonthum (Eds.), Applied natural language processing and content analysis: Identification, investigation, and resolution. (pp. 298-311). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Computational assessing human judgments of freewriting. In P. M. McCarthy and C. Boonthum (Eds.), Applied natural language processing and content analysis: Identification, investigation, and resolution. (pp. 365-382). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Anderson, T., & Crossley, S. A. (2011). Rue with a difference: A stylistic analysis of the rhetoric of suicide in Hamlet. In M. Ravassat & J. Culpeper (eds.), Shakespeare's Language: Stylistic and Linguistic Approaches. (pp. 192-214). New York, NY: Continuum Press.

 Refereed Conference Proceedings 

Crossley, S. A., Defore, C., Kyle, K, Dai, J., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Paragraph specific N-Gram Approaches to Automatically Assessing Essay Quality. In D’Mello, S. K., Calvo, R. A., & Olney, A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 6th  Educational Data Mining (EDM) Conference. (pp. 216-220). Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Crossley, S. A., Varner, L., Roscoe, R., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Using automated cohesion indices as a measure of writing growth in intelligent tutoring systems and automated essay writing systems. In Lane, H. C., Yacef, K., Mostow, J., & Pavlik, P. (Eds.). Proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. (pp. 269-278). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

Crossley, S. A., Roscoe, R., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Using automatic scoring models to detect changes in student writing in an intelligent tutoring system. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.). Proceedings of the 26th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 208-213). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press.

Crossley, S. A., Varner, L., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Cohesion-based prompt effects in argumentative writing. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.). Proceedings of the 26th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 202-207). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press.

Collins-Thompson, K., Frishkoff, G., & Crossley, S. A. (2012). Definition response scoring with probabilistic ordinal regression. In B. Chang, S. Tan, T. Matsui, G. Biswas, LH Wong, T. Hirashima, & W. Chen (Eds). Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE). National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Brandon, R., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). A linguistic analysis of expert-generated paraphrases. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.). Proceedings of the 25th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 268-271). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Cai, Z., & McNamara, D. S. (2012). Syntagmatic, paradigmatic, and automatic n-gram approaches to assessing essay quality. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.). Proceedings of the 25th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference. (pp. 214-219) Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Roscoe, R., Kugler, D., Crossley, S. A., Weston, J., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Developing pedagogically-guided threshold algorithms for intelligent automated essay feedback. In McCarthy, P. M. & Youngblood G. M., (Eds.). Proceedings of the 25th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference.(pp. 466-471) Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011).Text coherence and judgments of essay quality: Models of quality and coherence. In L. Carlson, C. Hoelscher, & T. F. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 1236-1241). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Roscoe, R. D., & McNamara, D. S. (2011) Predicting human scores of essay quality using computational indices of linguistic and textual features. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. [PDF]

Feng, S., Cai, Z., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Simulating human ratings on word concreteness. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 245-250). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Raine, R. B., Mintz, L., Crossley, S. A., Dai, J., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Text box size, skill, and iterative practice in a writing task. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 537-542). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Roscoe, R. D., Crossley, S. A., Weston, J. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Automated assessment of paragraph quality: Introductions, body, and conclusion paragraphs. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 281-286). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Roscoe, R. D., Varner, L. K., Cai, Z., Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Internal usability testing of automated essay feedback in an intelligent writing tutor. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 543-548). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Rus, V., Feng, S., Brandon, R., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). A linguistic analysis of student-generated paraphrases. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 293-298). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., McCarthy, P. M., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Number of words versus number of ideas: Finding a better predictor of writing quality. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 335-340). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A. & McNamara, D. S. (2010). Cohesion, coherence, and expert evaluations of writing proficiency. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 984-989). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2010). Interlanguage talk: What can breadth of knowledge features tell us about input and output differences? Proceedings of the 23rd International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society. [PDF]

Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2010). Towards a computational assessment of freewriting quality. Proceedings of the 23rd International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Boggess, G., & Salsbury, T. (2009). Exploring Lexical Network Development in Second Language Learners. . In C.H. Lane & H.W. Guesgen (Eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 225-230). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Duran, N. D., Crossley, S.A., Hall, C., McCarthy, P.M., & McNamara, D.S. (2009). Expanding a catalogue of deceptive linguistic features with NLP technologies. In C.H. Lane & H.W. Guesgen (Eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 243-248). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T. McCarthy, P. M. & McNamara, D. S. (2008). Using Latent Semantic Analysis to explore second language lexical development. In D. Wilson & G. Sutcliffe (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 136-141). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Salsbury, T., McCarthy, P. M., & McNamara, D. S. (2008) LSA as a measure of second language natural discourse. In V. Sloutsky, B. Love, and K. McRae (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1906-1911). Washington, D.C.: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

McCarthy, P. M., Rus, V., Crossley, S. A., Graesser, A. C., & McNamara, D. S. (2008). Assessing forward-, reverse-, and average entailment indices on natural language input from the intelligent tutoring system, iSTART. In D. Wilson & G. Sutcliffe (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 165-170). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., Dufty, D. F., McCarthy, P. M., & McNamara, D. S. (2007). Toward a new readability: A mixed model approach. In D.S. McNamara and G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 197-202). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., McCarthy, P. M. & McNamara, D. S. (2007). Discriminating between second language learning text-types. In D. Wilson & G. Sutcliffe (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 205-210). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press.[PDF]

McCarthy, P. M., Rus, V., Crossley, S. A., Bigham, S. C., Graesser, A. C. & McNamara, D. S. (2007). Assessing entailer with a corpus of natural language from an intelligent tutoring system. In D. Wilson & G. Sutcliffe (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 247-252). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Crossley, S. A., McCarthy, P. M., Lewis, G. A., Dufty, D. F., Louwerse, M. M. & McNamara, D. S. (2006). Detecting manipulated second language learning texts. In R. Sun & N. Miyake (Eds.), Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2463). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Louwerse, M. M. & Crossley, S. A. (2006). Dialog act classification using N-Gram algorithms.  In G. Sutcliffe & R. Goebel (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (pp. 758-763). Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press. [PDF]