Professor and Chair,
Instructional Design, Development and Evaluation
ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology
What is your highest degree?
Ph.D., Syracuse University, Communications and Psychology, 1961.
Could you describe how you got into
the field of Instructional Technology?
I was a projectionist in the audiovisual club in my high school.
Later, in my undergraduate college (Suny-Albany) I worked with the AV
How would you describe your research
agenda? How did you decide to research that area?
I am currently involved in three areas: conditions that facilitate the
implementation of Educational Technology innovations; cross-cultural
transfer of media; and the history and philosophy of the field of Educational
Technology. Each of these research areas grew out of field experience.
When I found a gap in the literature, I began to explore and then to
do research in each of these areas. (This is the short version. There
is much more, of course.)
What are two books or papers you
have written that you believe are especially well done or interesting?
Teaching and media: A systematic
approach (Prentice-Hall, 1971; 1981).
Media personnel in education: A competency approach (Prentice-Hall,
What are two works by other people
that you found very provocative or informative?
"Next Year, Jerusalem" From the British Journal Of Educational Technology
(1976). Bob Heinich's "The Proper Study Of Instructional Technology",
What practical work experience do
you have in the it field? What has been the relationship between work
experience and research?
Concurrent with teaching, I was director of the Center for Instructional
Communications--an instructional development unit at Syracuse and Consulting
in many universities and many countries.
Who are a few people who have had
the most important impact on your career?
James D. Finn, a close personal friend and professional. Colleagues
from the University of Southern California; Irene Cypher, head of the
media program at New York University; and Floyd Henrickson, AV Director
What do you see as the future of
This should be a long answer but, in brief, I see our field
leading in the design and appropriate application of technology in teaching
and learning with less emphasis on the hardware and more on the software
and its use.
What do you like best about your
No two days are the same.
What advice do you have for IT researchers
who are just beginning in the field?
Do not think about research per se, rather, think about what
you are curious about...what questions you would like to have answered
that have not been answered.