An additional problem with what we teach pre-service teachers with respect to technology, is that we still don't really know how to use new technologies in new ways. Most of us still use word processors as typewriters. We use spreadsheets as calculators. We are just beginning to understand how to use multimedia and hypermedia in ways that take advantage of their unique capabilities. Deciding what to teach pre-service teachers with respect to technology is made even more difficult because of the rapidity of technological change. We have to prepare them for a classroom that doesn't exist yet, and that too often, we can't even imagine. -S.H.

Laura Responds:
I agree completely. My bias, of course, would be to first determine the educational effectiveness of different technological possibilities and then teach the applications found to be the most effective. In addition, I would help teachers conduct their own classroom research on the effectiveness of other possibilities. I believe this may be the only way to insure that we do as you suggested--use technology as a means to an end, and not an end in itself.