Roger Bakeman

Ph.D, University of Texas at Austin, 1973
Professor Emeritus, 2007
Member, Developmental Psychology Program
Urban Life

Running throughout my work is a concern with social interaction: how it is observed, how it is described, and how it is analyzed.

With Lauren B. Adamson I have observed and continue to observe infants and toddlers interacting with their mothers to study how such infants communicate—and how joint attention is transformed—before and as formal language is acquired in typically developing toddlers and toddlers with autism and Down Syndrome.

With Vicenç Quera (University of Barcelona, Spain) I have written a book, Sequential Anaysis and Observational Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (Fall 2011, see right) as well as articles, an earlier book, and computer programs that describe general approaches and specific analytic strategies for the sequential analysis of systematic observational data.

And with John M. Gottman (University of Washington) I wrote an earlier book (1997) explaining procedural and analytic strategies for observational studies in general.

I have also worked with a number of colleagues, analyzing archives of interview, self-report, medical, and other data, primarily related to health concerns, including AIDS: with John Peterson (GSU) analyzing effects of stress, coping, HIV status, psychosocial resources, and depressive mood in African American gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men; with Michael Compton (formerly Emory School of Medicine; now Lenox Hill Hospital, North Shore–LIJ Health System, NY) analyzing effects of mental health awareness training (CIT, crisis intervention team) on police officers; with Kim Bard (formerly Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta; now University of Portsmouth, UK) analyzing emotional engagement and social cognition in young chimpanzees; with Jin Li (Brown University) analyzing how European American and Taiwanese mothers talk to their children about learning; and with Kim Oller (University of Memphis and Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research, Altenberg, Austria) analyzing functional flexibility of infant vocalization and the emergence of language. 

Finally, with Josephine V. Brown (GSU, emeritus) I have observed preterm and fullterm infants and mothers interacting and have studied effects of early interaction patterns on their subsequent development.

For additional details, see my curriculum vitae

Representative Publications


Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (2012). Behavioral observation. In H. Cooper (Ed.-in-Chief), P. Camic, D. Long, A. Panter, D. Rindskopf, & K. J. Sher (Assoc. Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology: Vol. 1. APA handbook of research methods in psychology: Psychological research: Foundations, planning, methods, and psychometrics.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.

Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (2011). Sequential analysis and observational methods for the behavioral sciences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Bakeman, R., Quera, V., & Gnisci A. (2009).  Observer agreement for timed-event sequential data:  A comparison of time-based and event-based algorithms.  Behavior Research Methods, 41, 137–147. doi:10.3758/BRM.41.1.137

Quera, V., Bakeman, R., & Gnisci, A. (2007). Observer agreement for event sequences: Methods and software for sequence alignment and reliability estimates. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 39-49.

Bakeman, R. (2006). The practical importance of findings. In K. McCartney, M. R. Burchinal, & K. L. Bub (Eds.), Best Practices in Quantitative Methods for Developmentalists (pp. 127-145). Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71(3, Serial No. 285).

Bakeman, R. (2005).  Recommended Effect Size Statistics for Repeated Measures Designs.  Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 37, 379-384 .

Bakeman, R., & Gottman, J. M. (1997).  Observing interaction:  An introduction to sequential analysis (2nd ed.).  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


Adamson, L.B., Bakeman, R., Deckner, D. F., & Nelson, P. B. (2014).  From interactions to conversations:  The development of joint engagement during early childhood. Child Development. 85, 941–955.   doi: 10.1111/cdev.12189

Bard, K. A., Bakeman, R., Boysen, S. T., & Leavens, D. A. (2014).  Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees.  Developmental Science, 17, 682–696.

Compton, M. T., Bakeman, R., Broussard, B., Hankerson-Dyson, D., Husbands, L., Krishan, S., Stewart-Hutto, T., D’Orio, B., Oliva, J. R., Thompson, N. J., & Watson, A. C. (2014).  The police-based Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Model:  I. Effects on officers’ knowledge, attitudes, and skills and  II. Effects on level of force and resolution, referral, and arrest. Psychiatric Services, 65, 517–529.

Peterson, J. L., Bakeman, R., Sullivan, P., et al. (2014).  Social discrimination and resiliency are not associated with differences in prevalent HIV infection in black and white men who have sex with men.  Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 66, 538–543.

Li, J., Fung, H., Bakeman, R., Rae, K., & Wei, W. (2013).  How European American and Taiwanese mothers talk to their children about learning:  A sequential analysis.  Child Development, 85, 1206–1221.

Oller, D. K., Buder, E.H., Ramsdell, H. L., Warlaumont, A. S., & Bakeman, R.  (2013).  Functional flexibility of infant vocalization and the emergence of language.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 6318–6323.

Adamson, L.B., Bakeman, R., Deckner, D. F., & Nelson, P. B. (2012).  Rating parent–child interactions: joint engagement, communication dynamics, and shared topics in autism, Down syndrome, and typical development.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 42, 2622–2635.  doi 10.1007/s10803-012-1520-1

Parrott, D.J., Peterson, J.L., & Bakeman, R. (2011). Determinants of aggression toward sexual minorities in a community sample.  Psychology of Violence, 1, 41–52.

Adamson, L. B., Deckner, D. F., & Bakeman, R. (2010).  Early interests and joint engagement in typical development, autism, and Down syndrome.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 665–676.  doi: 10.1007/s10803-009-0914-1

Parrott, D. J., Gallagher, K. E., Vincent, W., & Bakeman, R. (2010).The link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities:  An event-based analysis.  Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 516–521.

Romski, M. A., Sevcik, R., Adamson, L. B., Cheslock, M., Smith, A., Barker, R. M., & Bakeman, R. (2010).  Randomized comparison of augmented and non-augmented language interventions for toddlers with developmental delays and their parents.  Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53, 350–364. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0156)

Adamson, L. B., Bakeman, R., Deckner, D. F., & Romski, M. A. (2009).  Joint engagement and the emergence of language in children with autism and Down syndrome.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 84–96.  doi: 10.1007/s10803-008-0601-7

Brown, J. V., Bakeman, R., Sampers, J. S., Korner, A. F., Constantinou, J. C., & Anand, K. J. S. (2008).  Comparison at 32–37 weeks post conception of infants born 1983–1989 and 1995–2004 on the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI).  Infancy, 13, 393–409.

Camras, L. A., Oster, H., Bakeman, R., Meng, Z., Ujiie, T., & Campos, J. J. (2007). Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for different negative emotions? Emotional Expression in European-American, Chinese, and Japanese Infants. Infancy, 11, 131-55.

Millett, G. A., Flores, S. A., Peterson, J. L., & Bakeman R. (2007). Explaining disparities in HIV infection among black and white men who have sex with men:  A meta-analysis of HIV risk behaviors. AIDS, 21,2083-2091.

Related Links

Sequential Analysis