Incorrect.
First reread the sentence (lines 17-21) to help determine why this noun, "intelligence," isn't being replaced by the pronoun, "I." Now read the sentence again, putting the word "intelligence" in place of the pronoun "I." Notice that this sentence contains a series of changes: "The machine" is referred to as "this kind of machine," then "it," and finally "I." Machines keep getting mentioned but intelligence doesn't. Perhaps you were misled by the idea that it would require intelligence (i.e., a human being's capacity to think) to say "I won't wait." In a figurative sense machines can also "speak."

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Correct.
The pronoun "I" takes the place of the noun "machine" used at the beginning of the sentence. To answer correctly you had to realize that "it," the subject of the verb "say," also refers to "machine." You also had to understand the author's use of figurative language: literally, machines don't say, "I won't wait." But, as a figure of speech, the automated machine is capable of "speaking," i.e., of communicating with workers.

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Incorrect.
First reread the sentence (lines 17-21) to help determine why this noun, "man", isn't being replaced by the pronoun, "I." Now read the sentence again, putting the word "man" in place of the pronoun "I." Notice that this sentence contains a series of changes: "The machine" becomes "this kind of machine," then "it," and finally "I." Machines keep getting mentioned but man doesn't. Perhaps you were misled by the mention of man (lines 4 and 13) and because you know that human beings (not machines) talk. If you selected this option you missed the author's figurative meaning. In a figurative sense machines can "speak."

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Incorrect.
First reread the sentence (lines 17-21) to help determine why this noun, "time," isn't being replaced by the pronoun, "I." Now read the sentence again, putting the word time in place of the pronoun "I." Notice that this sentence contains a series of changes: "The machine" becomes "this kind of machine," then "it," and finally "I." Perhaps you were misled by the notion of time that is implied in the statement, "I won't wait."

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Incorrect.
The passage deals with man's relationship to machines in mass production and in automation. While these are both related to the idea of business, the relationship is a distant one. Further, this option does not deal with the type of work in which man is servant to the machine. The passage contains a direct answer to the question.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The passage concerns man's relationship to machines in mass production and in automation. This option does not deal with the type of work in which man is servant to the machine.



























































































































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Incorrect.
This option is the opposite of the information in the passage. Reread lines 11-16, beginning with the sentence about automa- tion. In these two sentences you learn that in automation man is master of the machine, not a servant. ("Automation...enables a man to work at whatever pace he wants to work...He is the master...")



























































































































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Correct.
The question requires that you combine information from several sentences in the passage. The first sentence describes the mass production line as a "timing machine." In the second sentence you learn that man is a servant to the machine (the timing machine) in the sense that he "has to be available to perform a given task." The third sentence strengthens the idea of servitude by stating that man is "in many ways a slave of the machine."



























































































































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Incorrect.
The passage contrasts the effectiveness of automation and the mass production line. Automation is presented as more effective because it is self-adapting to man's pace. Mass production is less effective because it fixes man's movement.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The passage contrasts the effectiveness of automation and the mass production line. It is not possible to determine from the information in the passage just how well either of them works. However, automation is presented as more effective than the mass production line. Automation allows man to be the master while the mass production line makes man a slave.



























































































































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Correct.
The passage contrasts automation and the mass production line. Automation is a "a self-adapting and a changing piece of mechanism;" that is, it is flexible (lines 12-13). The mass production line fixes man's time and his movements (lines 6-7). In sum, auto- mation is flexible but the mass production line isn't.



























































































































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Incorrect.
This response is the opposite of the information in the passage. The mass production line is described as inflexible, for man has to be available to perform a given task at a given time (lines 3-5) and has to perform mechanical motions to keep it going (lines 7-8). On the other hand, automation changes to allow man to work at whatever pace he wants.



























































































































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Correct.
The passage compares and contrasts the mass production line with automation. Both affect the worker, but the effects are different. The mass production line controls man, while automation allows man to be the master in most processes. The contrast is explicitly cued in line 11, by the phrase "on the contrary."



























































































































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Incorrect.
The passage is exposition, not narration. In a narrative passage the author tells a story, complete with the elements of char- acters, setting, and event. In an expository passage, the author presents information and explains ideas. In this passage, the author explains the difference between the mass production line and automation.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The passage explains man's relationship to the mass production line and to automation. No examples of mass production lines, automation, machines, workers, or tasks are contained in the passage.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The author does not provide any of his/her own personal experiences with either the mass production line or automation. All the experiences described in the passage are third person ("man," "he"), not first person, experiences. If you were misled by the pronoun "I" in the last sentence, review item 1. This pronoun refers to a thing, not a person.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The mass production line is defined in the first sentence: "essentially a timing machine which moves goods from place to place in a given time."



























































































































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Correct.
The passage focuses on the positive aspects of automation. None of the shortcomings or limitations are mentioned. You correctly noted the key word in the question ("fails") and knew to look for what was not in the passage.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The passage does mention the advantages of automation: it adapts and changes, enables man to be the master, gives information, and suggests a course of action.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The passage mentions several characteristics of the mass production line which the author believes are shortcomings: man is a slave, the line fixes man's time and movements, and the line requires man to make semi-intelligent mechanical motions.



























































































































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Incorrect.
Only the last sentence of the second paragraph describes the nature of medieval warfare (the blood-and-iron era of the 11th century). The description of the Battle of Hastings is a description of a specific battle, not of medieval warfare in general. So, while the passage does contain limited information about medieval warfare (the Battle of Hastings, the blood-and-iron era, and the Crusades), the nature of medieval warfare is not the focus of the passage. Be sure to pay attention to the item stem, which directs you to select the primary purpose.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The politics and culture of medieval England are referred to only in a limited sense. In the last ten lines of the passage we are told that the Latin influence replaced the Scandinavian influence and that the Normans implanted much of their culture in England. However, this option overlooks the reasons for and the importance of these changes. Be sure to pay attention to the item stem, which directs you to select the primary purpose.



























































































































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Correct.
The passage concentrates on the important results of the Norman Conquest; this purpose is strongly cued in the opening sentence, especially in the words "so changed the course of events that it is impossible to reckon our history without" the Conquest. The author explains the significance of the Conquest by pointing out that, as a result, a flow of concepts began that influenced men's lives for centuries (lines 10-12); England once more became part of Europe (lines 21-24) and part of the mainstream of medieval civilization (lines 31-32); and England was influenced by many different aspects of Norman culture (lines 28-30).



























































































































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Incorrect.
William the Conqueror's strengths and weaknesses are details contained in the second paragraph. The other three paragraphs, that is, the majority of the passage, do not develop either his strengths or weaknesses. Therefore, this option cannot be considered the primary purpose of the passage. Be sure to pay attention to the item stem -- you are to identify the primary purpose, not details.



























































































































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Incorrect.
While this option is one of the meanings of "furious," it does not fit in this particular context. In a literal sense, "hours" (the noun modified by angry) cannot be angry. The words in the sentence do not suggest that the people were angry, so this option is not plausible in a figurative sense either. Be sure to pay attention to the item stem, which directs you to select the meaning of the word as it is used in this particular passage.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The Norman victory was certainly distressing to the English, who lost the Battle of Hastings. However, neither the victory nor the hours during which the battle was fought were distressing to the Normans. This option doesn't fit the meaning of the adjective as it is used to describe the hours of battle.



























































































































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Incorrect.
This option is one of the meanings of "furious." However, it does not fit in this particular context, as the beginning of the target sentence describes the hours as "blood-splashed." Further, even though common sense would suggest the likelihood of a noisy battle, this choice doesn't fit the tone of a major battle. Be sure to pay attention to the stem of the item, which directs you to select the meaning as used in this context.



























































































































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Correct.
The context clue for determining the meaning can be found at the beginning of the sentence, in the phrase "a blood-splashed October day." A blood-splashed day certainly would contain violent hours. The association of warfare is reinforced in "the Norman victory at Hastings" -- later identified as the Battle of Hastings (lines 1 and 21).



























































































































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Incorrect.
One of the clues is provided by the grammatical structure of the sentence containing "sobriquet." If "sobriquet" were replaced by "honor," the sentence would read "William, Duke of Normandy, had earned the lasting honor of 'Conqueror.'" To be grammatically proper, this sentence should be written: He earned the honor of being called Conqueror. This is not quite the same as earning the honor of Conqueror. An additional clue to the meaning is provided by the author's reference to William in the second paragraph as "William the Conqueror." Note that his name changes from the first to the second paragraph. Remember that clues to the meaning of a word can be provided both before and after the word itself.



























































































































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Incorrect.
This option makes no sense when substituted for the underlined word: "William, Duke of Normandy, had earned the lasting victory of 'Conqueror.'" Notice that the author first refers to William as the Duke of Normandy, then calls him William the Conqueror (line 13).



























































































































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Correct.
The meaning of the word is cued by example: after winning the Battle of Hastings, William, Duke of Normandy, earns the sobriquet "Conqueror." A few lines later, "William, Duke of Normandy," is referred to as William the Conqueror. His new name came about as a result of his victory. Nicknames frequently reflect an important event or characteristic.



























































































































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Incorrect.
One of the clues is provided by the grammatical structure of the sentence containing "sobriquet." If "sobriquet" were replaced by "reward," the sentence would read "William, Duke of Normandy, had earned the lasting reward of 'Conqueror.'" To be grammatically proper, this sentence should be written: He earned the reward of being called Conqueror. This is not quite the same as earning the reward of Conqueror. An additional clue to the meaning is provided by the author's reference to William in the second paragraph as "William the Conqueror." Note that his name changes from the first to the second paragraph. Remember that clues to the meaning of a word can be provided both before and after the word itself.



























































































































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Correct.
Refer to the final paragraph of the passage. The second sentence contains the phrase, "the island kingdom." The surrounding sentences establish the reference to England and Englishmen. In addition to these direct references, an understanding of the relationship among the ideas in the three sentences in the paragraph can be applied to answer the question. The paragraph is developed something like this: (Sentence 1) Cause: The Normans brought their ways into England. (Sentence 2) Result: The island kingdom is brought into the mainstream of medieval civilization. (Sentence 3) Explanation of what it means to be brought into the mainstream: England becomes involved in various medieval movements.



























































































































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Incorrect.
In the first paragraph of the passage you are told that the Norman victory occurred at Hastings (line 1), a seaside town on the southeast coast of England (lines 7-8). It would not be possible that the town of Hastings could be the kingdom referred to in the fourth paragraph.



























































































































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Incorrect.
This option reverses the roles of the characters and is therefore essentially the opposite of the correct response. The Normans (Normandy) conquered the English (the island kingdom of England) at the Battle of Hastings. As a consequence, the Normans brought their way of life to England (lines 28-31), and England was brought into mainstream medieval civilization. In sum, the Normans came to the country where the English lived, not the reverse.



























































































































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Incorrect.
Scandinavia is mentioned in the third paragraph as having influenced England prior to the time of the Norman conquest. According to the information in this passage the Normans conquered England (i.e., the island kingdom) but no mention is made of the Normans going to or influencing Scandinavians.



























































































































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Correct.
Several suggestions are made in the passage that the Norman Conquest advanced England's civilizations: (1) "a flow of concepts began that would influence men's lives for centuries to come" (lines 10-12); (2) William's victory "made England once more a part of Europe, as it had not been since the better days of the Roman Empire" (lines 22-24); (3) "political and cultural ideals of the Latin world" (lines 26-27); (4) "brought into the mainstream" (lines 31-32); and (5) "reform of church and monastery" (line 34). Note the numerous positively-slanted descriptions of the results. These changes imply an advancement, that is, an improvement, of English civilization.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The stem directs you to choose what is implied in the passage. While many of the words in this option come directly from the passage, the meaning is quite different. The passage indicates only that England once again became part of Europe. It is not mentioned that it ever had a rightful (something it had done to "earn a position") place in the Roman Empire.



























































































































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Incorrect.
The stem directs you to choose what is implied in the passage. While the passage deals with the military conquest of England, the results do not suggest that England became militaristic. A militaristic nation would be one that actively tries to engage in warfare. Some of the results appear to be peaceful and civilized -- changes in the law and architecture and reform of church and monastery. Furthermore, there is no suggestion that prior to the Conquest England was nonmilitaristic, which it would have had to be in order to be "turned into" a militaristic nation. In fact, the implication is that militarism was widespread: "the blood-and-iron era of the 11th century" (lines 17-18).



























































































































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Incorrect.
The stem directs you to choose what is implied in the passage. No mention is made of the unification of church and state. Don't be misled by the reference to the reform of the church, which was a consequence of the Norman conquest.