PRACTICE REGENTS' READING TEST
WITH INSTRUCTIONAL FEEDBACK

REGENTS' TESTING PROGRAM



This is a version of the example Reading Test which lets you know whether the responses you select are correct or not as soon as you select them. For each response, the reason the response is correct or incorrect is given. This version may be helpful to those who achieve scores that are near or below the passing score on the other versions of the Reading Test.

Once you have decided what you think the correct answer is, click on the number next to it. A statement indicating whether that selection is correct or incorrect will appear along with an explanation. After you have read the explanation, click on the Back button of your browser to return to the test.

There is a table after the last passage which indicates the correct responses. Also after the last passage there is a conversion table which you may use to find your scale score. Following are the instructions for the regular version of the Reading Test. They are given here only for information since things such as timing are not relevant in this instructional context.

INSTRUCTIONS
This is a test of reading comprehension. It is designed to measure your understanding of the material that you read.

The test contains 9 passages. Following each passage is a set of questions about the passage. There are 54 questions on the test.

For each question following a passage, choose the best response on the basis of the content of the passage.

Do not spend too much time on any one question. If a question seems very difficult, make the most careful guess you can. Your score is the number of correct answers that you give; there is no added penalty for wrong answers.

You will have 60 minutes to complete the test.



PASSAGE ONE



A mass production line is essentially a
timing machine which moves goods from place
to place in a given time. In that given
time, a man has to be available to perform a
5 given task. He is, in fact, in many ways a
slave of the machine. It fixes his time and
fixes his movements, and he has to produce a
series of semi-intelligent mechanical motions
to keep the machine fed and moving. This is
10 what I mean by saying that mechanization is
his master. Automation, on the contrary, by
being a self-adapting and a changing piece of
mechanism, enables a man to work at whatever
pace he wants to work, because the machine
15 will react to him. He is the master of the
machine, except in the simpler processes.
The machine that forms part of an automated
system is not predetermined: this kind of
machine gives information and suggests a
20 course of action, but it does not necessarily
say "I won't wait."

PASSAGE TWO



The Norman victory at Hastings marked
the turning point of a blood-splashed October
day just 900 years ago -- a day which so
changed the course of events that it is
5 impossible to reckon our history without
those few furious hours. For when darkness
fell on Senlac Hill, near the seaside town of
Hastings on the southeast coast of England,
William, Duke of Normandy, had earned the
10 lasting sobriquet of "Conqueror." And a flow
of concepts began that would influence men's
lives for centuries to come.
William the Conqueror. Resolute and
resourceful, avaricious, rarely humorous,
15 always unsentimental, he found life a serious
business. He expressed practical ideas in a
grinding tone of voice. In the blood-and-
iron era of the 11th century, he lived his
greatest -- and his worst -- moments on the
20 battlefield.
His victory at the Battle of Hastings
made England once more a part of Europe, as
it had not been since the better days of the
Roman empire. After the Conquest, the
25 Scandinavian influence on England began to
give way to the political and cultural ideals
of the Latin world.
Besides feudalism and a new aristocracy,
the Normans implanted in England much of
30 their language, law, architecture, and social
customs. The island kingdom was thus brought
into the mainstream of medieval civilization.
Englishmen participated in the Crusades, the
reform of church and monastery, and other
35 movements of the time.

PASSAGE THREE



Your eyes are about three inches apart.
That's more than trivia -- it's the reason you
see the world in three dimensions. The
separation gives your eyes two slightly different
5 views of every scene you encounter. In the
brain's visual cortex, these views are
compared, and the overlap is translated into a
stereoptic picture. To estimate relative
distances, your brain takes a reading of the
10 tension in your eye muscles.
But you only see in 3-D up to about 200
feet. Beyond that, you might as well be
one-eyed -- your eyes aren't far enough apart
to give two very different views over long
15 distances. Instead, you rely on experience to
judge where things are; the brain looks for
clues and makes its best guess. For example,
it knows that near objects overlap far ones;
that bright objects are closer than dim ones;
20 and that large objects are nearer than small
ones.
These "monocular cues" are what painters
use to trick us into thinking a flat canvas is
three- dimensional and miles deep. That's why
25 paintings are much more convincing if you
close one eye: Your brain hunts down all the
clues the painter has dropped. But when both
of your eyes are open, the brain gets more
information and mixed signals. The paint may
30 say miles, but the muscles in your eyes say
inches.
All of this fancy eyework is second
nature to us, but it is learned. "Other
cultures don't perceive pictures the same
35 way we do," says J. Anthony Movshon, Ph.D.,
associate professor of psychology at New York
University. "For example, primitive people
don't always think bigger means nearer. It's
our Western way of seeing things, and it's a
40 way of seeing that we've learned."

PASSAGE FOUR



After almost five years as an elected
Superior Court judge in Georgia, I am
convinced that all significant problems in the
administration of our judicial system can
5 be summed up in one word: politics.
Georgia judges are, purely and simply,
politicians. Some are able jurists, but they
all serve under a system that forces them to
be more political than a judge should be. I
10 learned early on that many citizens fail to
make a distinction between a judge/politician
and other breeds of politician. Trying to
explain to a constituent that you want his
support but that you can't do anything for
15 him is, at best, difficult.
Judges in Georgia have the worst of both
worlds -- they must run for election like a
county commissioner, but they are bound by
law to observe a strict set of rules: the
20 Canons of Judicial Conduct. The canons are
voluminous and complicated; suffice it to say
here that they make it impossible for an
honest person to run a campaign and be true
to them.
25 For example, a candidate for judicial
office cannot solicit funds or even ask
anyone to solicit votes for him. All of this is
done, in theory, by a committee of friends,
but in reality the canons are ignored by most
30 candidates.
It was a sight bordering on the
ridiculous this year to observe the candidates for
the Supreme Court of Georgia. Some of them
showed up at professional gatherings such as
35 State Bar meetings with political buttons on
their lapels, shaking hands feverishly with
everyone in reach. During the campaign, one
candidate was overheard remarking to a group
at a political function that he needed to
40 rush off to a "fund-raiser" in another town
-- a blatant and fundamental violation of
canons.
No one makes any serious effort to
enforce the rules of conduct that judges are
45 sworn to live by. Within the past few years
there have been flagrant violations of the
ban on political activity by judges, but
little, if anything, has been done about it.

PASSAGE FIVE



Heartened by the knowledge that Polly
was not altogether a cretin, I began a long,
patient review of all I had told her. Over
and over and over again I cited instances,
5 pointed out flaws, kept hammering away
without letup. It was like digging a tunnel. At
first everything was work, sweat, and
darkness. I had no idea when I would reach the
light, or even if I would. But I persisted.
10 I pounded and clawed and scraped, and finally
I was rewarded. I saw a chink of light. And
then the chink got bigger and the sun came
pouring in and all was bright.
Five grueling nights this took, but it
15 was worth it. I had made a logician out of
Polly; I had taught her to think. My job was
done. She was worthy of me at last. She was
a fit wife for me, a proper hostess for my
many mansions, a suitable mother for my well-
20 heeled children.
It must not be thought that I was
without love for this girl. Quite the contrary.
Just as Pygmalion loved the perfect woman he
had fashioned, so I loved mine. I decided to
25 acquaint her with my feelings at our very
next meeting. The time had come to change
our relationship from academic to romantic.
"Polly," I said when next we sat beneath
our oak, "tonight we will not discuss
30 fallacies."
"Aw, gee," she said, disappointed.
"My dear," I said, favoring her with a
smile, "we have now spent five evenings
together. We have gotten along splendidly.
35 It is clear that we are well matched."
"Hasty Generalization," said Polly
brightly.
"I beg your pardon," said I.
"Hasty Generalization," she repeated.
40"How can you say that we are well matched on
the basis of only five dates?"
I chuckled with amusement. The dear
child had learned her lessons well. "My
dear," I said, patting her hand in a tolerant
45 manner, "five dates is plenty. After all, you
don't have to eat a whole cake to know that
it's good."
"False Analogy," said Polly promptly.
"I'm not a cake. I'm a girl."
50I chuckled with somewhat less amusement.

PASSAGE SIX



In New Orleans, Moon Walk -- a pathway
along a stretch of the Mississippi -- now
provides the public access that had previously
been denied. It's a charming place, where
5 one night recently a band played on the walk
as tourists and residents of the adjacent
Vieux Carre (the Old Quarter or French
Quarter) strolled past. A few feet west, the
paddlewheeler Natchezsounded its whistle,
10 signaling its imminent departure.
Now the city plans to extend public access
to the area adjoining Moon Walk in an
ambitious design that will, the city hopes,
be a part of its development for the next
15 world's fair. This more ambitious concept
for the waterfront will be likely to stir
considerable debate as competing projects
vie for the opportunities for profit. The
development will therefore require
20 substantial participation, cooperation and scrutiny
by citizens to make sure that while private
profitability is maintained, the public's
needs are satisfied,
The joint efforts of environmentalists,
25 business-people, civic leaders and politicians
have transformed abandoned, derelict port
landscapes in cities throughout America into
exciting commercial and recreational centers.
Examples are the Cannery in San Francisco,
30 the Riverfront Walk in San Antonio, Faneuil
Hall Market in Boston and Harborplace in
Baltimore.
It's easy to understand why the port
areas were neglected. While many cities were
35 growing up along rivers, lakes and natural
harbors, depending on water-borne commerce,
waterfronts thrived. After World War II,
however, technological changes in
transportation -- improved planes and airports, the
40 interstate highway system, larger tracks for
freight trains and containerized shipping --
rendered many old port facilities obsolete.
Waterfront areas became peripheral to the
life of the city. Piers were abandoned, and
45 the waterfronts lay idle in many older cities,
paralleling the more general urban decay.
With the 1970's came a period of
reflection on this condition and a resurgence
of urban pride. Urban renewal stopped being
50 a license for large-scale demolition;
politicians and planners took a hard look at
their available resources and began to
experiment with new development techniques.
Waterfronts became one focus of the large
55 urban revitalization effort.

PASSAGE SEVEN



A wool sock, a toilet seat, Oriental
silk -- out of a millennium of mud comes
proof that the globe-traveling Vikings
weren't the ravaging rovers historians made
5 them to be.
"The old English image of the Vikings as
simply blood-thirsty bands of pillagers
vanished with these finds," says Richard Hall,
an archaeologist.
10"We dug down and found a cocoon of
water-logging, a time capsule of everyday
life," said Hall,who led a tour Wednesday
through a muddy concrete hall fashioned out
of the hole left from the excavation.
15Hall was one of some 400 people who, for
five years, dug up the leftovers of the lives
of an estimated 30,000 Vikings. Workers
discovered the sophisticated settlement when a
central district of York was leveled for rebuilding.
20Starting April 14, 1984, electric cars
will carry tourists through a tunnel of time
that goes back to 866 A.D., when the Vikings
came to York, 188 miles northwest of London.
Archaeologists are eager to display what
25 they found in a $3.9 million reconstruction
of Jorvik, the Anglo-Saxon name for the
settlement.
"We have skeletons, 15,000 objects,
a quarter-of-a-million pieces of pottery, some
30 of the best preserved Viking-age buildings
ever discovered and five tons of animal
bones," Hall said.
The digs revealed intimate details of
Viking life. There is a toilet seat, keys,
35 tools, games counters, the seeds in the
blackberries they picked and a knitted woolen
sock.
"They were a great trading nation with a
sophisticated monetary system," Hall said.
40 "We will show the range of products in
which they traded -- silk from the Far East,
amber from the Baltic, pottery from the
Rhineland, cowrie shells from the Indian
Ocean."

PASSAGE EIGHT



Review of "The Collected Prose." By
Elizabeth Bishop. Edited by Robert Giroux.
278 pages. Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
5
The late Elizabeth Bishop always
epitomized, in John Ashbery's phrase, "a
writer's writer's writer." By 1976, when she
became the first American -- and the first
woman -- ever to receive the Neustadt
10 International Prize, the world at large began to
realize what many of her fellow poets had
long suspected: that her poetic achievement
might in time overshadow that of her more
famous contemporaries. Bishop's admirers
15 will want to consult her "Collected Prose"
for the light it sheds on her poetry. They
will discover, however, that it is more than
just a handsome companion volume to last
year's "Complete Poems, 1927-1979." Bishop's
20 clean, limpid prose makes her stories and
memoirs a delight to read.
Robert Giroux, Bishop's editor, divides
her "Collected Prose" into "Memory: Persons
& Places" and "Stories." Fair enough, though
25 inevitably the distinctions between these two
categories blur. Stories like "Gwendolyn"
and the justly celebrated "In the Village" do
double duty as autobiographical statements.
By the same token "Efforts of Affection" -- a
30 memoir of Marianne Moore as mentor and friend
-- achieves the emotional resonance of a
finely wrought short story. So does "The
U.S.A. School of Writing," Bishop's account
of her first job after graduation from Vassar
35 in the midst of the Great Depression. For
the grand sum of $15 a week, she impersonated
a "successful, money-making" author named
"Fred G. Margolies" for a shady
correspondence school in New York City.

PASSAGE NINE


Said a Melrose, Massachusetts, housing
engineer in 1980, "Every politician is the
same, regardless of whether he's in Boston
or Washington. That's why a lot of us may
5 choose not to vote this November." As a
result, people are focusing efforts on the
local level. There, one sees not apathy but
intense political activity.
There has been a gradual but pronounced
10 shift of power out of the hands of elected
officials to direct ballot voting through
local initiatives and referenda where people,
not officials, decide by a majority vote a
certain course of action.
15 Politicians matter less and less. So
there is a declining interest in national
political elections. It is a natural
consequence of the shift from a representative
to a participatory democracy.
20Political commentators and the media, of
course, see this as anything but natural. We
are constantly upbraided for apathy and for
taking democracy for granted. And by now we
all feel even guilty about it.
25We should not. Low voter turnout does
not automatically signal trouble in democracy.
In any event, exceptionally high turnout
is not necessarily the wonderful thing the
commentators would have us believe it is.
30 Worldwide, the highest turnouts occur in
totalitarian states. For example, only one
voter failed to turn out in Albania's 1978
general election; North Korea counts on a
full 100-percent turnout; and in Romania and
35 East Germany the vote hovers at around 99
percent.
Political analysis used to associate low
turnout with apathy or ignorance. But as the
electorate becomes better educated, more
40 informed, and more assertive, that
rationalization is becoming increasingly difficult to
substantiate. Analysts are finally beginning
to understand that voters are making a
conscious decision not to participate
45We have pulled the essence of political
power out of the hands of our elected
representatives and reinvested it into two
main areas: (1) the direct ballot vote of
initiatives and referenda and (2) grassroots
50 political activity. In both cases citizens,
not politicians, decide on a course of action
and live with it.
Produced for the Regents' Testing Program by Dr. Belita Gordon,School of Professional Studies, University of Georgia, 1986

The correct answers are identified with asterisks on the following table. Click here to see the description of the statistics in this table. A conversion table is provided below for those who wish to compute scale scores.
           Item        Item        % choosing each option    P-    Pb   Bis
           Number   Classification      1    2    3    4    Value  Corr  Corr 

              1         Literal         2   93*   3    2      93    .19  .35
              2         Literal         0    2    3   94*     94    .33  .66
              3       Inference         4    1   93*   2      93    .33  .62
              4        Analysis        88*   6    5    1      88    .16  .27
              5         Literal         2   78*   5   14      78    .42  .59
              6       Inference         2    7   87*   4      87    .35  .55
              7      Vocabulary         4   10    1   85*     85    .36  .56
              8      Vocabulary        23    7   67*   3      67    .36  .47
              9         Literal        86*   4    8    2      86    .24  .38
             10       Inference        74*  17    2    6      74    .39  .53
             11       Inference        80*   2    2   16      80    .23  .33
             12      Vocabulary         6   75*  13    6      75    .32  .44
             13       Inference         8   55*   2   35      55    .41  .52
             14        Analysis         7    6    2   85*     85    .37  .57
             15        Analysis        14    4   16   65*     65    .27  .35
             16      Vocabulary         4    8   22   66*     66    .45  .58
             17      Vocabulary        30  56*    4   10      56    .42  .53
             18         Literal        75*   5    4   17      75    .39  .54
             19       Inference        11   10   73*   5      73    .32  .44
             20       Inference         3   76*  10   11      76    .43  .58
             21        Analysis         6    5   77*  11      77    .37  .52
             22        Analysis         4    6    2   88*     88    .31  .51
             23       Inference        48*  13   30    9      48    .41  .51
             24       Inference        82*   1    1   16      82    .37  .55
             25         Literal         1    2   96*   1      96    .22  .49
             26       Inference         8    4    6   82*     82    .39  .58
             27        Analysis        79*   8    5    8      79    .41  .59
             28      Vocabulary         4   74*  11   11      74    .43  .58
             29       Inference        11    5    6   78*     78    .39  .54
             30       Inference         4    3   88*   5      88    .36  .59
             31       Inference        88*   4    4    3      88    .35  .57
             32         Literal         3    3  81*   13      81    .49  .70
             33        Analysis        30  44*  24     1      44    .42  .52
             34      Vocabulary         2  88*   6     4      88    .45  .72
             35         Literal         6  85*   3     5      85    .44  .67
             36       Inference        76*  8   13     2      76    .30  .41
             37      Vocabulary        91*  2    3     4      91    .36  .63
             38         Literal        19   6    2    72*     72    .43  .58
             39       Inference         2  91*   3     3      91    .31  .54
             40         Literal         2  72*  16     9      72    .42  .55
             41         Literal         1   1    0    98*     98    .24  .64
             42        Analysis         8   2   81*    9      81    .39  .56
             43       Inference        81* 12    5     2      81    .28  .40
             44       Inference         1   5   81*   13      81    .39  .56
             45         Literal        12  74*   1    13      74    .27  .37
             46      Vocabulary         1  96*   1     2      96    .22  .48
             47        Analysis        12  17    4    67*     67    .31  .40
             48        Analysis        50*  8   29    12      50    .38  .48
             49      Vocabulary        72* 20    4     3      72    .56  .74
             50       Inference         6  75*   7     9      75    .51  .70
             51      Vocabulary        82*  6    8     2      82    .45  .66
             52        Analysis        76*  8    3     9      76    .56  .77
             53       Inference         9   4   26    58*     58    .56  .71
             54        Analysis         5   4    4    84*     84    .44  .66





The following table may be used to compute scale scores for this practice test.
 Raw Score to Scaled Score Conversion Table
  for Form 23 of the Regents' Reading Test
                       
__________________________________________________________
 Raw        Scaled                       Raw     Scaled
Score**     Score                       Score     Score
__________________________________________________________
   1          6                          31        53
   2         13                          32        54
   3         18                          33        55
   4         21                          34        56
   5         24                          35        57
   6         26                          36        58
   7         28                          37        59
   8         30                          38        60
   9         31                          39       *61 
  10         33                          40        62
  11         34                          41        63
  12         35                          42        64
  13         37                          43        66
  14         38                          44        67
  15         39                          45        68
  16         40                          46        70
  17         41                          47        72
  18         42                          48        74
  19         43                          49        76
  20         44                          50        78
  21         45                          51        82
  22         46                          52        86
  23         46                          53        93
  24         47                          54        99
  25         48                                      
  26         49                                      
  27         50                                       
  28         51                                       
  29         52                                        
  30         53                                       
_____________________________________________________________ 
  *minimum passing score
 **The raw score is the number of items answered correctly. 

This practice Reading Test with instructional feedback is based on an operational form administered in 1984. It has been released to provide information about the test. While it continues to serve as an example of the content and difficulty level of the test, the gender-biased language evident here, especially in the first passage, is avoided on more recent forms. We have agreed to honor the request of instructors to reserve the more recent non-secure passages and questions for classroom use rather than public release.
© 1996, University System of Georgia - permission required for any reuse

Last updated: September 25, 2003