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ABD — Means all but dissertation; all caps, no periods.
academic degrees — Capitalize the names of academic degrees, but do not capitalize the discipline or a major, minor, concentration or field of study. Examples: Bachelor of Science in chemistry, Master of Fine Arts degree with a major in studio, Doctor of Philosophy with a major in business administration and a concentration in financial planning. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in geography. Do not capitalize incomplete names of academic degrees. Examples: She has a master’s degree in business administration. He has a bachelor’s degree in geography.
Use an apostrophe in bachelor’s degree and master’s degree.
When used after a name (and this should be done sparingly), an academic degree abbreviation is set off by commas: John Doe, Ph.D., wrote an article.
Do not precede a name with a courtesy title indicating an academic degree and follow it with the abbreviation for the degree. Examples: Dr. John Doe, Ph.D., historian, is redundant. Dr. John Doe, historian, is better. John Doe, Ph.D., historian, also is correct.
• academic and scholarly degrees, abbreviations of — The following list includes the most frequently used abbreviations. Note: Not all institutions of higher learning use the same abbreviations for the same degree names. Sometimes, too, abbreviations stand for different degrees. Also, in today’s specialized world, many schools create very specific degree names that are not used elsewhere.
A.A., Associate of Arts
A.A.A., Associate of Applied Arts
A.A.S., Associate of Applied Science
A.B., Artium Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Arts)
A.B., Associate of Bible
A.C.I.S.T., Associate in Computer Information Systems Technology
A.D., Associate Degree
A.D.N., Associate Degree in Nursing
A.Eng., Associate in Engineering
A.Eng.Tech., Associate in Engineering
A.F.A., Associate in Fine Arts
A.F.S., Associate in Fire Science Technology
A.M., Artium Magister (Master of Arts)
A.M.S., Associate in Medical Science
A.S., Associate of Science
A.S. in S.S., Associate of Science in Secretarial Science
A.S.N., Associate of Science in Nursing
B.A., Bachelor of Arts
B.A.A., Bachelor of Applied Arts
B.A.E., Bachelor of Aerospace Engineering
B.A.J., Bachelor of Arts in Journalism
B.B., Bachelor of Bible
B.B.A., Bachelor of Business Administration
B.B.E., Bachelor of Biblical Education
B.C.E., Bachelor of Civil Engineering
B.Cer.E., Bachelor of Ceramic Engineering
B.Ch.E., Bachelor of Chemical Engineering
B.C.I.S.T., Bachelor of Computer Information Systems Technology
B.C.E., Bachelor of Civil Engineering
B.Com., Bachelor of Commerce
B.C.M., Bachelor of Church Music
B.C.S., Bachelor of Commercial Science
B.Div., Bachelor of Divinity
B.E.E., Bachelor of Electrical Engineering
B.Eng.Tech., Bachelor of Engineering Technology
B.E.S.M., Bachelor of Engineering Science and Mechanics
B.F.A., Bachelor of Fine Arts
B.I.E., Bachelor of Industrial Engineering
B.I.S., Bachelor of Interdisciplinary Studies
B.L.A., Bachelor of Landscape Architecture
B.M., Bachelor of Music
B.M.E., Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering
B.M.Ed., Bachelor of Music Education
B.M.S., Bachelor of Medical Science
B.Mus., Bachelor of Music
B.N.E., Bachelor of Nuclear Engineering
B.R.E., Bachelor of Religious Education
B.S., Bachelor of Science
B.S.A., Bachelor of Science in Agriculture
B.S.A.Biol., Bachelor of Science in Applied Biology
B.S.Agr.Eng., Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Engineering
B.S.A.Math., Bachelor of Science in Applied Mathematics
B.S.A.Phys., Bachelor of Science in Applied Physics
B.S.A.Psy., Bachelor of Science in Applied Psychology
B.S.B.A., Bachelor of Science in Business Administration
B.S.B.C., Bachelor of Science in Building Construction
B.S.Biol., Bachelor of Science in Biology
B.S.C.A., Bachelor of Science in Construction Administration
B.S.Chem., Bachelor of Science in Chemistry
B.S.Econ., Bachelor of Science in Economics
B.S.Ed., Bachelor of Science in Education
B.S.E.E., Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering
B.S.H.E., Bachelor of Science in Home Economics
B.S.H.P., Bachelor of Science in Health Physics
B.S.H.S., Bachelor of Science in Health Systems
B.S.I.C.S., Bachelor of Science in Information and Computer Science
B.S.I.D., Bachelor of Science in Industrial Design
B.S.Ind.Mgt., Bachelor of Science in Industrial Management
B.S.L.A., Bachelor of Science in Landscape Architecture
B.S.Math., Bachelor of Science in Mathematics
B.S.Mgt., Bachelor of Science in Management
B.S.M.Sci., Bachelor of Science in Management Science
B.S.N., Bachelor of Science in Nursing
B.S.Phar., Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy
B.S.Phys., Bachelor of Science in Physics
B.S.Psy., Bachelor of Science in Psychology
B.S.T.Ch., Bachelor of Science in Textile Chemistry
B.S.Text., Bachelor of Science in Textiles
B.S.W., Bachelor of Social Work
B.T.E., Bachelor of Textile Engineering
B.Tech., Bachelor of Technology
B.Th., Bachelor of Theology
B.V.A., Bachelor of Visual Arts
Cert., Certificate or Teacher Certification
C.T., Chiropractic Technician
D.A., Doctor of Arts
D.A.S.T., Diploma for Advanced Study in Teaching
D.B., Divinitatis Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Divinity)
D.B.A., Doctor of Business Administration
D.C., Doctor of Chiropractic
D.D., Divinitatis Doctor (Doctor of Divinity)
D.D.S., Doctor of Dental Surgery
D.Min., Doctor of Ministry
D.O., Doctor of Osteopathy
D.P.A., Doctor of Public Administration
D.R.E., Doctor of Religious Education
D.S.T., Doctor of Sacred Theology
D.Th., Doctor of Theology
D.V.M., Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Ed.D., Doctor of Education
Ed.S., Specialist in Education
J.C.D., Junior College Diploma
J.D., Juris Doctor (Doctor of Law)
L.H.D., Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor (Doctor of Humanities)
Litt.D., Litterarum Doctor (Doctor of Letters)
LL.B., Legum Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Laws)
LL.D., Legum Doctor (Doctor of Laws)
LL.M., Legum Magister (Master of Laws)
M.A., Master of Arts
M.Ac., Master of Accounting
M.A.Ed., Master of Art Education
M.A.M., Master of Avian Medicine
M.A.N., Master of Arts in Nursing
M.A.R., Master of Arts in Religion
M.Arch., Master of Architecture
M.A.S., Master of Actuarial Science
M.A.T., Master of Arts for Teachers
M.A.T.S., Master of Arts in Theological Studies
M.A.Y.M., Master of Arts in Youth Ministry
M.B.A., Master of Business Administration
M.B.Ed., Master of Business Education
M.B.I.S., Master of Business Information Systems
M.C., Master of Communication
M.C.E., Master of Christian Education
M.C.H., Master of Community Health
M.Chem., Master of Chemistry
M.Co., Master of Communication
M.C.P., Master of City Planning
M.D., Medicinae Doctor (Doctor of Medicine)
M.Div., Master of Divinity
M.D.S., Master of Dental Surgery
M.E.E., Master of Electrical Engineering
M.Ed., Master of Education
M.E.S., Master of Experimental Statistics
M.F.A., Master of Fine Arts
M.G.A., Master of Governmental Administration
M.H.A., Master of Health Administration
M.H.E., Master of Home Economics
M.H.P., Master of Heritage Preservation
M.H.R.M., Master of Human Resource Management
M.Ins., Master of Insurance
M.L.A., Master of Landscape Architecture
M.L.M., Master of Library Media
M.Ln., Master of Librarianship
M.L.T., Master of Laws in Taxation
M.M.Ed., Master of Music Education
M.M.S., Master of Medical Science
M.Mus., Master of Music
M.N., Master of Nursing
M.P.A., Master of Professional Accountancy
M.P.A., Master of Public Administration
M.P.Acct., Master of Professional Accountancy
M.P.H., Master of Public Health
M.P.T., Master of Physical Therapy
M.R.A., Master of Recreation Administration
M.R.E., Master of Religious Education
M.S., Master of Science
M.S.A.E., Master of Science in Aerospace Engineering
M.S.Arch., Master of Science in Architecture
M.S.A.S., Master of Science in Atmospheric Sciences
M.S.Biol., Master of Science in Biology
M.S.Cer.E., Master of Science in Ceramic Engineering
M.S.Ch.E., Master of Science in Chemical Engineering
M.S.Chem., Master of Science in Chemistry
M.S.Civ.E., Master of Science in Civil Engineering
M.S.C.P., Master of Science in City Planning
M.S.E.E., Master of Science in Electrical Engineering
M.S.Env.E., Master of Science in Environmental Engineering
M.S.E.S.M., Master of Science in Engineering Science and Mathematics
M.S.Geoph., Master of Science in Geophysical Sciences
M.S.H.Phys., Master of Science in Health Physics
M.S.H.S., Master of Science in Health Systems
M.S.I.C.S., Master of Science in Information and Computer Science
M.S.I.E., Master of Industrial Engineering
M.S.I.M., Master of Science in Industrial Management
M.S.Ind., Master of Science in Industrial and Systems Engineering
M.S.L.S., Master of Science in Library Science
M.S.Math., Master of Science in Mathematics
M.S.M.E., Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering
M.S.Met., Master of Science in Metallurgy
M.S.Mgt., Master of Science in Management
M.S.N.E., Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering
M.S.O.R., Master of Science in Operations Research
M.S.Phys., Master of Science in Physics
M.S.Psy., Master of Science in Psychology
M.S.R.E., Master of Science in Real Estate
M.S.R.E.U.A., Master of Science in Real Estate and Urban Affairs
M.S.Stat., Master of Science in Statistics
M.S.T., Master of Science for Teachers
M.S.Tex., Master of Science in Textiles
M.S.Tex.Ch., Master of Science in Textile Chemistry
M.S.Tex.E., Master of Science in Textile Engineering
M.S.W., Master of Social Work
M.Tax, Master of Taxation
M.Th., Master of Theology
M.T.S., Master of Theological Studies
M.Tx., Master of Taxation
M.V.A., Master of Visual Arts
Pharm.D., Doctor of Pharmacy
Ph.B., Philosophiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Philosophy)
Ph.D., Philosophiae Doctor (Doctor of Philosophy)
S.B., Bachelor of Science
S.M., Master of Science
S.T.B., Sacrae Theologiac Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Sacred Theology)
S.T.D., Doctor of Sacred Theology
Th.B., Bachelor of Theology
Th.M., Master of Theology
academic departments, schools and colleges — Capitalize the complete formal names of academic departments, but lowercase informal or incomplete references. Examples: the Department of Communication, the communication department, the department; the School of Music, the music school, the school; the College of Law, the law college, the college.
academic disciplines — Do not capitalize generic terms for fields of study unless they are formal titles or proper nouns, such as English. Examples: He is a music major but has a strong interest in biology. His sister, enrolled in the Women’s Studies Program, is delving into women’s studies as part of her Bachelor of Interdisciplinary Studies degree program. The hospitality administration students gave a party for their fellow public and urban affairs colleagues. Sam, formerly an insurance student, has now begun his marketing program.
academic titles and names — Capitalize formal titles, such as dean, president, chair, director, vice president, professor, chancellor, only when they precede a name or when the title and name appear in a listing (such as in a directory or a program for a meeting). Otherwise, lowercase such titles when they stand alone or when they follow a name. Titles that follow the name and titles in apposition are set off with commas. Examples: Dean A.B. Sea; A.B. Sea, dean of student financial services; the dean. The dean of student financial services addressed the group. Dean of Student Financial Services A.B. Sea addressed the group. The director of the Department of News reports to the vice president for communications. Communications at the university is headed by Vice President Mary O’Sullivan. The head of the department is Chair Sandy Garnett. Sandy Garnett, chair of the department, spoke to the group. The Department of Geography’s chair, Ruby Carter, spoke to the group. Department Chair Carter spoke. The dean of students, Dr. Bill Gadget, addressed the staff of the Office of the Dean of Students. The dean’s part-time staff members were not present. Associate Professor John Smyth resigned yesterday. John Smyth, associate professor, resigned yesterday. Professor Harvey Smith was voted chancellor of the University System of Price County. Chancellor Smith will begin his term tomorrow.
Exception: Named professorships, fellowships and chairs are always capitalized — when standing alone, as well as after and before the designees’ names: Dr. Alan Brown, Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Musicology; Dr. Lillian Goldthwaite, Sergey Diaghilev Professor of Terpsichore; Barton Sperry, George Shaw Fellow of the Royal Academy; Dr. Joe Smith, Regents’ Professor of Mathematics; Dr. John Bull, holder of the Chair of Institutional Studies.
Note: In academic circles the term professor is used very specifically; it is not a generic term for any person teaching a course at a college or university. The word should be used only in references to those who have official status as full professors. In references to other faculty members, use the correct designations, even in casual references. Such designations include associate professor, assistant professor, adjunct professor, instructor, clinical professor, etc. See “professor.”
academic programs — Capitalize the names of formal programs of study; lowercase informal and generic references to programs and courses of study. Examples: He was enrolled in the geology program (the general course of study offered by the Department of Geology). She is enrolled in the Executive MBA Program (a specialized degree program with a specific curriculum, entrance qualifications and administrative structure).
academic quarters, semesters, terms — Lowercase these generic terms. Examples: The fall term begins on Monday. She will take classes this summer quarter. Classes for the College of Law begin in the fall semester.
academic units (such as centers, chairs, colleges, departments, institutes, offices and schools) — Capitalize the formal name of an academic unit. Lowercase partial or informal unit names except for words that are proper nouns or adjectives. Examples: Georgia State University, the university. The Economic Forecasting Center has done a fine job. The center will strive to do even better. He was a member of the faculty of the Institute for Industrial Relations. The institute published 20 books last year. She worked for the School of English Studies. The English-studies school is 10 years old.
advance registration — Early registration, or registration in advance of the normal registration period, is advance registration not advanced registration (no ed).
adviser — This is the preferred spelling; note the e.
alumni association — This is a generic term that is lowercased. Capitalize only when part of a complete formal name. Examples: He was a member of the Duke University Alumni Association Inc. Her husband belonged to another alumni association.
alumni association board of directors — The generic term board of directors is lowercased: Georgia State University Alumni Association board of directors.
alumnus, alumni, alumna, alumnae, alum — An alumnus (alumni in the plural) is the generic term for an individual who graduated from a school. An alumna (alumnae in the plural) is a specific reference to a woman who graduated from a school. Alum is colloquial for either a male or female graduate. Use alumni when referring to a group of men and women graduates.
animals, scientific names — The names for genera, species and subspecies are set in italics. The genus name is given first and is capitalized; species and subspecies names are lowercased even though they may be proper adjectives. After the first use, the genus name may be abbreviated to a single capital letter. Examples: Rosa caroliniana, Styrax californica, Populus tremuloides, P. deltoides, Noctilio l. labialis. English derivatives of scientific names are lowercased and not italicized. Examples: amoeba, amoebas (from Amoeba), carnivores (from the order Carnivora). For a more complete explanation, see “scientific copy, terminology in,” The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press.
annual fund, alumni annual fund, alumni annual fund campaign — These are but a few of the many generic names for certain fund-raising activities. Such generic terms are lowercased. An annual fund drive and its various components, however, may have specific names that vary from year to year and may be based on a theme or a specific target audience. Such named campaigns are capitalized.
appendix, appendices, appendixes — Both appendixes and appendices are correct plural forms of the word appendix, although the latter is preferred.
• Appendix A, Appendix I, Appendix 1 — Capitalize in references to a specific appendix or specifically to that portion of a book or report. Lowercase generic references. Examples: in the Appendix, an appendix, the appendix of a book.
art, works of, titles of — Italicize and capitalize titles of paintings, drawings, statues, photographs and other works of art.
articles, titles of, in magazines, journals and other publications — Capitalize and enclose in quotation marks.
artist-in-residence — Note hyphens.
athletic (adj.), athletics (noun) — Confusion often arises when a writer does not have clearly in mind whether the noun form (athletics) is required as a modifier or the adjective form (athletic) is required. An athletic director is a director who is an athlete, regardless of what he or she directs. An athletics director, on the other hand, is specifically a director of physical activity, such as sports.
attn., attn: — In mailing addresses, use the form attn: (colon, no period).
board of advisers, board of aldermen, board of deacons, board of directors, board of supervisors, board of trustees, board of visitors — Lowercase the names of such internal elements of an organization or institution. They are widely used generic terms.
book chapters, titles of — Chapter, essay and article titles within a book are capitalized and enclosed within quotation marks.
books, titles of — Titles and subtitles of books should be placed in quotes. Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters. Capitalize an article (a, an, the), or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title.
building — Never abbreviate in textual material. Capitalize the proper names of buildings, including the word building if it is an integral part of the formal name. Examples: The university campus has numerous buildings, including the Art and Music Building, the General Classroom Building and the Urban Life Center building.
bullets, use of punctuation with — Bullets are typographical elements that are used to set off individual ideas when both emphasis and clarity are important. This is especially true when there is a list of ideas to be expressed. Two punctuation formats are used: the single-sentence format and the multiple-sentence format:
• single-sentence format — Bullets are used to set off individual elements of a long, complex sentence. No punctuation is used after each element, because the elements do not constitute complete sentences by themselves and because the bullets take the place of such punctuation as commas and semicolons at the end of each element. Also, the first word after the bullet is lowercased unless it is a proper noun. Example:
Applicants to the university must submit:
• a $10 application fee
• a completed application form
• three letters of reference
• a short biographical sketch
• two transcripts of completed high school work
• multiple-sentence format — When the ideas are expressed as complete sentences, end each with a period and capitalize the first word. Example:
The application procedure is as follows:
• All applicants must submit a $10 application fee.
• A completed application form must accompany the fee.
• Three letters of reference are required.
• Applicants must write a short biographical sketch.
• Two grade transcripts must be sent by the school registrar.
capitalization — Georgia State University uses what is called a “down style” of capitalization, which is a spare style that avoids unnecessary capitals.
Proper names and adjectives are capitalized. Generic terms, such as university, department, school, street and state, are lowercased except when such terms are used as part of a complete expression of a formal name.
See individual entries for specific guidance on capitalizing individual titles.
center — Capitalize only when it is part of a fully expressed formal name. Examples: The Urban Life Center is a campus building. The Counseling Center is the name of an important division. She is a counselor at the center.
certified public accountant — Spell out in first references. Do not capitalize. Do not use periods with CPA.
chapter — Lowercase when the reference is to a chapter of an organization. Example: The Georgia chapter of the Society of Editors met yesterday. Capitalize when the reference is to a chapter of a publication, used with a number — always an Arabic figure. Example: The information was in Chapter 3 of the book.
chapter titles — Set within quotation marks; do not italicize.
chemicals — Spell as two or more words when used as adjectives; do not hyphenate. Examples: sodium cyanide salts, hydrogen peroxide bleach, boric acid crystals.
college — Capitalize only when used as part of a complete formal name. Examples: He attends the College of Business Administration, where he studies in the college’s taxation program. The business college is one of the largest of its kind. Georgia State’s College of Law is in the Urban Life Center. The college’s library is housed there, too.
colloquiums, colloquia — Either spelling is acceptable as the plural of colloquium; however, colloquiums is preferred.
comma — The following is not a treatise on the use of the comma, but it is a set of general guidelines to comma usage. Commas are to be used sparingly to make meaning clearer or to enable a reader to grasp the relationship between parts of a sentence more quickly.
• in a series — Use commas to separate words or phrases in a series, but do not use a comma before the conjunction in a simple series. Examples: She took classes in biology, chemistry and English. He did not want his car painted red, green or black.
In more complex sentences, an additional comma often is needed to prevent misreading. Therefore, a comma should be used before the concluding conjunction in a series if an integral element of the series requires a conjunction. Similarly, use a comma before the concluding conjunction in a complex series of phrases. A dash or a semicolon should be used when elements of a series contain internal commas.
Examples: The university’s colleges are Arts and Sciences, Business Administration, Education, Health Sciences, Law, and Public and Urban Affairs. Classes at Georgia State fall into these categories: daily; Monday, Wednesday and Friday; Tuesday and Thursday; and Monday, Wednesday and Thursday sessions. The Office of Admissions makes these considerations for admission: whether the candidate has shown interest in extracurricular activities, whether he or she has the requisite SAT scores and grade-point average, and whether the candidate has the ability to write a short autobiography.
• with dates, months, seasons, years — Do not use a comma between the month and year, or season and year, unless a specific day is given. Note: A comma follows the year when used with a month and day in textual material, as the year is in apposition. Examples: June 1994 was the month he retired. The new president’s term will begin fall 1995. The editor set Oct. 19, 1996, as the deadline for the stylebook.
• with identification of cities, states, nations — In textual material, set off — enclose — the name of a state or nation with commas when it appears with a city. Examples: Bob Foster of Salt Lake City, Utah, attended. Atlanta, Ga., has many fine schools. She spent her vacation at a Bath, England, resort.
• with Jr., Sr., III, IV, etc. — Do not use a comma to separate a name from Jr., Sr., III, IV, etc.
committee — Committee is a collective noun that takes a singular verb. Example: The ad hoc committee on harassment is now in session. To emphasize individuals on a committee, use the phrase members of the committee with a plural verb form. Example: The members of the ad hoc committee on harassment are meeting now.
Capitalize the full formal names of committees, but do not capitalize generic committee names. Do not capitalize paraphrastic, informal or incomplete designations. Examples: Senate Judiciary Committee, House Ways and Means Committee, Neighborhood Action Committee, Committee to Save Grant Park, the rules committee, the membership committee, the student affairs committee, the committee. See “capitalization.”
composer-in-residence — Note hyphens.
conference, conference titles — Capitalize conference titles; do not set in quotation marks; do not italicize. Capitalize conference as part of a full formal name; lowercase when used alone or when used with a place name and date.
core curriculum — Lowercase all references to the generic term for liberal arts requirements.
course titles, academic and nonacademic — Italicize the formal names of course titles, whether academic (for credit) or nonacademic (noncredit professional or personal enrichment). Note: Be certain that the title is a course title, not a conference, program, seminar or workshop title, which are not italicized.
coursework — This term is spelled as one word.
courtesy titles — Do not use the courtesy titles Mr., Mrs., Ms. or Miss except in direct quotations, or where needed to distinguish among people of the same last name (as in married couples or brothers and sisters), or where a woman specifically requests that a title be used (for example, where a woman prefers to be known as Mrs. Susan Smith or Mrs. Robert Smith). In cases where a person’s gender is not clear from the first name or from the story’s context, indicate the gender by using he or she in a subsequent reference. Also, see “doctor.”
• Honorable, the Honorable — The adjective title Honorable, whether abbreviated or spelled out, is never used with a surname alone. If the article the is used, Honorable should be spelled in full. If the article is not used, the abbreviated form, Hon., is the correct form. Hon. and the Honorable always go before the name. Examples: President Smith greeted the Honorable John Doe warmly. President Smith greeted Hon. John Doe warmly.
credit hour — Two words.
cum laude — Signifies graduation with honors; do not italicize.
curricula — The preferred spelling for the plural of curriculum.
dean’s list — Lowercase. Examples: She is on the dean’s list; her brother, too, is a dean’s list student.
degrees, academic — See “academic degrees.”
Department of, Division of, Office of — Capitalize the official names of departments and other divisions of companies, government agencies and similar institutions. Examples: Department of Editorial and Design Services, Division of Continuing Education, Office of Educational Media. In subsequent references, such names may be shortened (but lowercased); always lowercase informal references. Examples: editorial and design services, continuing education, educational media, math department, media office, publications department. Never abbreviate department or division.
disc, disk — The word disc refers to phonograph records and compact discs. Use disk in references to computer technology, such as computer disk, disk drive, hard disk, diskette.
dissertations, titles of — Capitalize and set within quotation marks; do not italicize.
Division of — Capitalize when division appears as part of a complete formal name; lowercase otherwise. Examples: She is a director in the Division of University Advancement. The division is one of several in the institution. See “Department of, Division of, Office of.”
doctor — Use Dr. in first reference as a formal title before the name of an individual who holds a doctor of dental surgery, doctor of medicine, doctor of osteopathy, or doctor of podiatric medicine degree: Dr. Jonas Salk. Do not use Dr. before the names of individuals who hold other types of doctoral degrees. Also, see “courtesy titles.”
• honorary doctorates — Do not use the title Dr. before the name of a person who has received only an honorary (not academically earned) doctorate. All references to honorary degrees should specify that the degree was honorary.
Doctor of Law — A common name for the Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree.
drawings, paintings, etchings, titles of — Capitalize and italicize the titles of drawings, etchings and paintings.
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